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Hawari F.I.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Bader R.K.,King Hussein Cancer Center | Beano H.M.,University of Jordan | Obeidat N.A.,King Hussein Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: In commitment to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), four new pictorial warnings are now being proposed for display on cigarette packages sold in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gauge the immediate perceptions of young Jordanian adults towards these new pictorials and compare these perceptions to those of the pictorial currently being used in the country. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of youth aged 17-26. The interviewer-administered survey gauged participants' perceptions of salience, fear elicitation, and gained information as well as participants' motivation to remain non-smokers or quit smoking after viewing each of the four proposed new pictorials as well as the current pictorial used in Jordan. Perceptions regarding each new pictorial were compared to the current pictorial. Results: A total of 450 surveys were included in the analysis. The sample (mean age 20.9) was 51.6% female and 31.3% cigarette (regular or occasional) smokers. In smokers, only one proposed pictorial had significantly more smokers perceiving it as salient or adding to information when compared to the current pictorial. More smokers reported fear when observing the proposed pictorials compared with current pictorial, but overall proportions reporting fear were generally less than 50%. Furthermore, all new pictorials motivated significantly more smokers to consider quitting compared with the current pictorial; however, the overall proportion of smokers reporting motivation was < 25%. Among nonsmokers, significantly more respondents perceived the new pictorials as salient and fear-eliciting compared to the old pictorial, but there were no major differences in information added. Motivation to remain non-smokers was comparable between the old and new pictorials. Conclusion: Given the variability of response across both smokers and nonsmokers, and across the three elements of perception (salience, added information, fear) for each pictorial, further testing of the pictorials in a more diverse sample of Jordanian young adults prior to launch is recommended. © 2011 Hawari et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Madanat H.N.,San Diego State University | Madanat H.N.,San Diego Prevention Research Center | Madanat H.N.,University of California at San Diego | Lindsay R.,San Diego State University | And 2 more authors.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition transition in four countries with respect to body dissatisfaction and eating styles. The target population for this study was college students in China (n=207), Japan (n=865), Jordan (n=322), and the United States (n=432). A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Results indicated that the Chinese sample was in an earlier stage of the nutrition transition, followed by Japan, Jordan, and the US. Interestingly, Jordanian and Chinese students exhibited the lowest level of body dissatisfaction. However, Jordanian students exhibited high levels of restrained eating similar to those seen in the Japanese and American students. The Japanese sample demonstrated a complex relationship between the culture of thinness, body dissatisfaction and eating styles. However the US sample reflected the expected levels of body dissatisfaction, high levels of restrained eating, emotional eating, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. Source

Ayala G.X.,San Diego Prevention Research Center
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objectives: This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-thetrainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Methods: Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support-all specific to PA). Results: Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P≤.001), waist circumference (P≤.001), fitness (P≤.001), and hamstring flexibility (P≤.001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P≤.05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P≤.01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P≤.05), and community support for PA (P≤.001). Self-efficacy decreased (P≤.05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Conclusions: Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health. Source

Galaviz V.E.,University of Washington | Yost M.G.,University of Washington | Simpson C.D.,University of Washington | Camp J.E.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Pedestrians waiting to cross into the US from Mexico at Ports of Entry experience long wait times near idling vehicles. The near-road environment is associated with elevated pollutant levels and adverse health outcomes. This is the first exposure assessment conducted to quantify northbound pedestrian commuter exposure to traffic-related air pollutants at the U.S.-Mexico border San Ysidro Port of Entry (SYPOE). Seventy-three persons who regularly crossed the SYPOE in the pedestrian line and 18 persons who did not cross were recruited to wear personal air monitors for 24-hto measure traffic pollutants particulate matter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) - a marker for diesel exhaust - and carbon monoxide (CO). Fixed site concentrations were collected at SYPOE and occurred during the time subjects were crossing northbound to approximate their exposure to 1-NP, ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5, CO, and black carbon (BC) while standing in line during their border wait. Subjects who crossed the border in pedestrian lanes had a 6-fold increase in exposure to 1-NP, a 3-fold increase in exposure to CO, and a 2-fold increase in exposure to gravimetric PM2.5, vs. non-border commuters. Univariate regression analysis for UFP (median 40,000#cm-3) found that border wait time for vehicles explained 21% of variability and relative humidity 13%, but when modeled together neither predictor remained significant. Concentrations at the SYPOE of UFP, PM2.5, CO, and BC are similar to those in other near-roadway studies that show associations with acute and chronic adverse health effects. Although results are limited by small sample numbers, these findings warrant concern for adverse health effects experienced by pedestrian commuters waiting in a long northbound queue at SYPOE and demonstrates a potential health benefit of reduced wait times at the border. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Quintana P.J.E.,San Diego State University | Dumbauld J.J.,San Diego State University | Garnica L.,San Diego State University | Chowdhury M.Z.,San Diego State University | And 16 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

The San Diego/Tijuana US-Mexico border crossing at the San Ysidro Port of Entry (POE) is the world's busiest international land border crossing (GSA, 2013). San Ysidro, California, is the US community immediately adjacent to the border crossing. More than 90% of San Ysidro residents are Hispanic, and the average household income is less than 60% of the San Diego regional average. This study investigated the San Ysidro POE as a source of traffic-related air pollutants in San Ysidro, especially in relation to wind direction and northbound vehicle wait times. The pollutants ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) were periodically sampled through the course of 2010 at four rooftop locations: one commercial establishment near the POE, two elementary schools in San Ysidro, and a coastal estuary reference site. Weather data from two nearby sites and northbound border wait times were also collected. Results indicate consistently higher daytime BC and UFP concentrations at the measurement sites near the POE. Pollution concentrations were higher during low wind speeds or when wind was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro. In February, March and November measurements, black carbon pollution appeared to be significantly positively associated with the POE northbound wait times when the wind direction was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro or during low wind speeds, but not when the wind direction was from the west/northwest towards the POE. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effect of the POE, especially the long northbound traffic delays, on the nearby community of San Ysidro. Disparities in traffic exposures are an environmental justice issue and this should be taken into account during planning and operation of POEs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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