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Pillai J.A.,University of California at San Diego | Pillai J.A.,Medical Center San Diego | Hall C.B.,Yeshiva University | Dickson D.W.,Yeshiva University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2011

Participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities such as crossword puzzles may delay onset of the memory decline in the preclinical stages of dementia, possibly via its effect on improving cognitive reserve. We followed 488 initially cognitively intact community residing individuals with clinical and cognitive assessments every 12-18 months in the Bronx Aging Study. We assessed the influence of crossword puzzle participation on the onset of accelerated memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 101 individuals who developed incident dementia using a change point model. Crossword puzzle participation at baseline delayed onset of accelerated memory decline by 2.54 years. Inclusion of education or participation in other cognitively stimulating activities did not significantly add to the fit of the model beyond the effect of puzzles. Our findings show that late life crossword puzzle participation, independent of education, was associated with delayed onset of memory decline in persons who developed dementia. Given the wide availability and accessibility of crossword puzzles, their role in preventing cognitive decline should be validated in future clinical trials. © Copyright The International Neuropsychological Society 2011.

Lessig S.,University of California at San Diego | Lessig S.,Medical Center San Diego | Nie D.,University of California at San Diego | Xu R.,University of California at San Diego | Corey-Bloom J.,University of California at San Diego
Movement Disorders | Year: 2012

Two hundred and twenty-one subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) were examined using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), with a subset of these (n = 98) examined on repeat testing up to 3 years. The MoCA was more sensitive in identifying cognitive deficit, specifically in the domains of visuospatial abilities, language, and memory. In longitudinal study, the MMSE changed significantly over time, particularly in patients with disease duration of >10 years. The MoCA, however, did not change significantly, even when subjects were stratified by age, MMSE score, and disease duration. This suggests that the MoCA may be more sensitive for detecting early cognitive change in PD, but that the MMSE, and not the MoCA, may be better for tracking cognitive decline. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

Chang G.H.,University of California at San Diego | Paz D.A.,University of California at San Diego | Dwek J.R.,Rady Childrens Hospital of San Diego | Chung C.B.,Medical Center San Diego
Clinical Imaging | Year: 2013

Paralleling the growing popularity of organized sports among pediatric athletes, the stress and intensity of training regimens has escalated the frequency and severity of pediatric overuse injuries. It is essential that radiologists have a thorough knowledge of the pathogenesis of these injuries and of their characteristic patterns with different imaging techniques in order to appropriately diagnose overuse injuries in the pediatric skeleton. Knowledge of the classification, mechanism, clinical and imaging manifestations of acute and chronic overuse injuries of the lower extremities common among pediatric athletes can assist in imaging-based diagnosis and characterization of injury. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Squire L.R.,Medical Center San Diego | Squire L.R.,University of California at San Diego | Berg D.,University of California at San Diego | Bloom F.E.,Scripps Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Fundamental Neuroscience: Fourth Edition | Year: 2012

The fourth edition of Fundamental Neuroscience reinvents itself as an engrossing and comprehensive presentation of the discipline of neuroscience, from molecules to cognition. Thorough but succinct, and lavishly illustrated, the book builds from an introductory section that includes fundamental neuroanatomy and goes on to cover cellular and molecular neuroscience, development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulatory systems, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience. The book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities. The chapters include more than 100 boxes describing clinical conditions, techniques, and other special topics. Each chapter went through a thorough review process, giving the book an evenness of tone. The chapters are authored by outstanding working scientists who are experts on the topics they cover. Selected for inclusion in Doodys Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries. 30% new material including new chapters on dendritic development and spine morphogenesis, chemical senses, cerebellum, eye movements, circadian timing, sleep and dreaming, and consciousness. Accompanying website for students and instructors. Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts. More than 650 four-color illustrations, micrographs, and neuroimages. Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys. Extensively expanded index for easier referencing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Millard S.P.,Care Network | Lutz F.,Geriatric Research | Lutz F.,University of Washington | Li G.,University of Washington | And 17 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels correlate with increased brain Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which suggests a disruption in the degradation and clearance of Aβ from the brain. In addition, APOE ε4 carriers have lower CSF Aβ42 levels than non-carriers. The hypothesis of this investigation was that CSF Aβ42 levels would correlate with regulatory region variation in genes that are biologically associated with degradation or clearance of Aβ from the brain. CSF Aβ42 levels were tested for associations with Aβ degradation and clearance genes and APOE ε4. Twenty-four SNPs located within the 5' and 3' regions of 12 genes were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 99 AD patients and 168 cognitively normal control subjects. CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with APOE ε4 status in controls but not in AD patients; A2M regulatory region SNPs were also associated with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls butnot in AD patients, even after adjusting for APOE ε4. These results suggest that genetic variation within the A2M gene influences CSF Aβ42 levels. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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