San Carlo Clinic

Paderno Dugnano, Italy

San Carlo Clinic

Paderno Dugnano, Italy
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Bechi N.,San Carlo Clinic | Bechi N.,University of Siena | Sorda G.,University of Siena | Spagnoletti A.,University of Siena | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2013

The identification of reproductive toxicants is a major scientific challenge for human health. We investigated the effects of a selected group of environmental polluting chemicals mostly provided with estrogenic activity on the human trophoblast cell lines BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo. Cells were exposed for 24. h to various concentrations (from 0.1. pM to 1. mM) of atrazine (ATR), diethylstilbestrol (DES), para-nonylphenol (p-NP), resveratrol (RES) and 17 β-estradiol (E2) and assayed for cell viability and human beta-Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG) secretion.Decrease of cell viability as respect to control, vehicle-treated, cultures was obtained for all chemicals in the concentration range of 1. μM-1. mM in both cell types.A parallel decrease of β-hCG secretion was observed in BeWo cells, at 1. μM-1. mM concentrations, with the only exception of ATR which caused an increase at concentrations up to 1. mM. β-hCG release was also unexpectedly inhibited by ATR, DES, p-NP and RES at non-toxic (pM-nM) concentrations.These findings raise concern about the negative, potential effects of various environmental polluting chemicals on pregnancy success and fetal health. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Aloisi A.M.,University of Siena | Ceccarelli I.,University of Siena | Carlucci M.,University of Siena | Suman A.,University of Siena | And 6 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Background: In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available.Methods: To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients treated with morphine (epidural route), we tested the administration of testosterone via a gel formulation for one year. Hormonal (total testosterone, estradiol, free testosterone, DHT, cortisol), pain (VAS and other pain questionnaires), andrological (Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale - AMS) and psychological (POMS, CES-D and SF-36) parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3, 6 and 12 months (T3, T6, T12 respectively).Results: The daily administration of testosterone increased total and free testosterone and DHT at T3, and the levels remained high until T12. Pain rating indexes (QUID) progressively improved from T3 to T12 while the other pain parameters (VAS, Area%) remained unchanged. The AMS sexual dimension and SF-36 Mental Index displayed a significant improvement over time.Conclusions: In conclusion, our results suggest that a constant, long-term supply of testosterone can induce a general improvement of the male chronic pain patient's quality of life, an important clinical aspect of pain management. © 2011 Aloisi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Affaitati G.,University of Chieti Pescara | Ceccarelli I.,University of Siena | Fiorenzani P.,University of Siena | Rossi C.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 7 more authors.
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2011

To better define the involvement of gonadal hormones in the sex differences observed in experimental visceral pain, we administered antagonists of estrogen receptors (ICI 182,780 [ICI]) or androgen receptors (Flutamide [FLU]) to adult male and female rats suffering from artificial ureteral calculosis. Subjects were divided into groups and treated with one of the substances (ICI, FLU) or sweet almond oil (OIL, vehicle) for 5. days, starting 2. days before surgery. On day 3, animals underwent surgery, with half receiving an artificial calculosis (Stone) and half only a sham procedure. The animals' behavior (number and duration of ureteral crises) and blood hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) were determined in all groups. In OIL-treated rats the number and duration of crises were higher in females than in males. The administration of ICI or FLU resulted in hormonal effects in males and behavioral effects in females. In males ICI treatment increased estradiol plasma levels and FLU increased testosterone plasma levels; in females ICI and FLU treatments both decreased the number and duration of the ureteral crises. These results, confirming previous findings of higher sensitivity of females than males to urinary tract pain, showed the modulatory effects of estrogen and androgen antagonists on the behavioral responses induced by pain but only in females. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Lariviere W.R.,University of Pittsburgh | Fiorenzani P.,University of Siena | Ceccarelli I.,University of Siena | Massafra C.,University of Siena | And 4 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2011

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is suggested to be involved in the regulation of pain. To better evaluate the CRH-mediated behavioral alterations in the formalin inflammatory pain test, we administered CRH or the CRH receptor antagonist α-helical CRH9-41 (ahCRH) intracerebroventricularly to male and female rats and compared the effects with those of saline control. Nociceptive stimulation was carried out through a subcutaneous injection of dilute formalin (50 μL, 10%) in the plantar surface of the hind paw. In both sexes, formalin-induced responses, recorded for 60 min, were affected by CRH but not by ahCRH treatment. Paw flexing duration was decreased in both sexes during the formalin interphase period in the CRH-treated group compared to saline control groups; however, licking of the injected paw was markedly increased by the same treatment at other time periods. Treatments induced only a few changes in spontaneous non-pain behaviors, which do not account for the effects on pain response. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the ability of CRH to affect the behavioral responses to an inflammatory nociceptive stimulus, and that the effects can be in opposite directions depending on the behavioral response considered. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


De Maddalena C.,San Carlo Clinic | Vodo S.,University of Siena | Petroni A.,University of Milan | Aloisi A.M.,University of Siena
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2012

An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Aloisi A.M.,University of Siena | Aloisi A.M.,Pain Neurophysiology and Therapy Center | Ceccarelli I.,University of Siena | Fiorenzani P.,University of Siena | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2010

Background: The steroid hormone testosterone has been found to be greatly reduced by opioids in different experimental and clinical conditions. The purpose of this study on male rats was to determine the effects of a single injection of morphine (5 mg/Kg) on persistent pain (formalin test) and the single or combined effects on p450-aromatase and 5-alpha reductase type 1 mRNA expression in the brain, liver and testis. Testosterone was determined in the plasma and in the brain, morphine was assayed in the plasma.Results: In the morphine-treated rats, there were increases of 5-alpha reductase mRNA expression in the liver and aromatase mRNA expression in the brain and gonads. Morphine was detected in the blood of all morphine-treated rats even though there were no clear analgesic affects in the formalin-treated animals three hours after treatment. Testosterone was greatly reduced in the plasma and brain in morphine-treated subjects.Conclusions: It appears that morphine administration can induce long-lasting genomic effects in different body areas which contribute to the strong central and peripheral testosterone levels. These changes were not always accompanied by behavioral modifications. © 2010 Aloisi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Paparella P.,San Carlo Clinic | Caruso E.,San Carlo Clinic | Barbieri M.,San Carlo Clinic | Bellini M.,San Carlo Clinic
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Background: A retrospective study was undertaken to investigate the biochemistry data of a restricted cohort of patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate laboratory data behavior and the VAS pain scale before and after joint replacement. Mathods: We produced an elaboration of the biochemical data of 90 orthopedic patients, collected from 2011 to 2013. These 90 patients were divided into 2 groups: one group of 45 patients who claimed severe postoperative pain and one group of 45 patients who showed no or mild postoperative pain. A student's t-test was applied, considering a P value less than 0.05 as statistically significant. Pearson correlation was applied. The pain visual analog scale [VAS] was employed. Results: Significant and relevant unexpected biochemical differences were found between the two groups of patients. The serum level of ferritin was significantly higher in men who claimed postoperative pain. We excluded the possibility that the ferritin difference between the two groups was due to different iron storage or to an inflammatory profile. Conclusions:The correct use of a biochemical database could permit identification of significant values which must be correlated with clinical data: these results confirmed what has been found in a dialysis cohort.


Bellini M.,San Carlo Clinic | Paparella P.,San Carlo Clinic
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background: A retrospective study was undertaken to inves- tigate the biochemistry data of a restricted cohort of dialysis- related arthropathy patients. The aim of our study was to characterize this specific cohort of dialysis patients using a clinical chemistry database analysis. Methods: An elaboration of more than 160,000 items of biochemical data, collected from 2001 to 20|11, was made of 50 patients, 25 with dialysis-related arthropathy and 25 patients asymptomatic for arthropathy. A Student's t-test was applied, considering a P-value less than 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Significant and relevant unexpected biochemical dif- ferences were found between the two groups of patients. The serum level of p2-microglobulin was similar, while fer- ritin values were significantly higher in symptomatic patients. We excluded the possibility that the ferritin difference between the two groups was due to different iron storage and to an inflammatory profile. Conclusions: The correct use of a biochemical database could permit to identify significant values which must be cor- related with clinical data, but which could be the first step to a wider research.


PubMed | San Carlo Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2013

The identification of reproductive toxicants is a major scientific challenge for human health. We investigated the effects of a selected group of environmental polluting chemicals mostly provided with estrogenic activity on the human trophoblast cell lines BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo. Cells were exposed for 24h to various concentrations (from 0.1 pM to 1 mM) of atrazine (ATR), diethylstilbestrol (DES), para-nonylphenol (p-NP), resveratrol (RES) and 17 -estradiol (E2) and assayed for cell viability and human beta-Chorionic Gonadotropin (-hCG) secretion. Decrease of cell viability as respect to control, vehicle-treated, cultures was obtained for all chemicals in the concentration range of 1 M-1 mM in both cell types. A parallel decrease of -hCG secretion was observed in BeWo cells, at 1 M-1 mM concentrations, with the only exception of ATR which caused an increase at concentrations up to 1mM. -hCG release was also unexpectedly inhibited by ATR, DES, p-NP and RES at non-toxic (pM-nM) concentrations. These findings raise concern about the negative, potential effects of various environmental polluting chemicals on pregnancy success and fetal health.


PubMed | San Carlo Clinic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cellular physiology | Year: 2012

An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition.

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