Olanow C.W.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Kieburtz K.,University of Rochester |
Odin P.,Skane University Hospital |
Espay A.J.,University of Cincinnati |
And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2014
Background: Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiological, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube. Methods: In our 12-week, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥30 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor complications at 26 centres in Germany, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligible participants had jejunal placement of a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube, and were then randomly allocated (1:1) to treatment with immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa plus placebo intestinal gel infusion or levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion plus oral placebo. Randomisation was stratified by site, with a mixed block size of 2 or 4. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in motor off-time. We assessed change in motor on-time without troublesome dyskinesia as a prespecified key secondary outcome. We assessed efficacy in a full-analysis set of participants with data for baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment, and imputed missing data with the last observation carried forward approach. We assessed safety in randomly allocated patients who underwent the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy procedure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00660387 and NCT0357994. Findings: From baseline to 12 weeks in the full-analysis set, mean off-time decreased by 4·04 h (SE 0·65) for 35 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group compared with a decrease of 2·14 h (0·66) for 31 patients allocated to immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa (difference -1·91 h [95% CI -3·05 to -0·76]; p=0·0015). Mean on-time without troublesome dyskinesia increased by 4·11 h (SE 0·75) in the intestinal gel group and 2·24 h (0·76) in the immediate-release oral group (difference 1·86 [95% CI 0·56 to 3·17]; p=0·0059). In the safety analyses 35 (95%) of 37 patients allocated to the levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel group had adverse events (five [14%] serious), as did 34 (100%) of 34 patients allocated to the immediate-release oral levodopa-carbidopa group (seven [21%] serious), mainly associated with the percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube. Interpretation: Continuous delivery of levodopa-carbidopa with an intestinal gel offers a promising option for control of advanced Parkinson's disease with motor complications. Benefits noted with intestinal gel delivery were of a greater magnitude than were those obtained with medical therapies to date, and our study is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of the benefit of continuous levodopa delivery in a double-blind controlled study. Funding: AbbVie. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Martinez-Martin P.,CIBER ISCIII |
Reddy P.,Kings College |
Antonini A.,IRCCS Hospital San Camillo |
Todorova A.,Kings College |
And 22 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2015
Subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (Apo) and intrajejunal levodopa infusion (IJLI) are two treatment options for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and refractory motor complications, with varying cost of treatment. There are no multicenter studies comparing the effects of the two strategies. This open-label, prospective, observational, 6-month, multicenter study compared 43 patients on Apo (48.8% males, age 62.3±10.6 years; disease duration: 14±4.4 years; median H & Y stage 3; interquartile range [IQR]: 3-4) and 44 on IJLI (56.8% males, age 62.7±9.1 years; disease duration: 16.1±6.7 years; median H & Y stage 4; IQR, 3-4). Cohen's effect sizes (≥0.8 considered as large) were "large" with both therapies with respect to total motor, nonmotor, and quality-of-life scores. The Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) with Apo showed moderate improvement, whereas sleep/fatigue, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dimensions of the NMSS showed significantly higher improvement with IJLI. Seventy-five percent on IJLI improved in their quality-of-life and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), whereas in the Apo group, a similar proportion improved in quality of life, but 40% in NMS. Adverse effects included peritonitis with IJLI and skin nodules on Apo. Based on this open-label, nonrandomized, comparative study, we report that, in advanced Parkinson's patients, both IJLI and Apo infusion therapy appear to provide a robust improvement in motor symptoms, motor complications, quality-of-life, and some NMS. Controlled, randomized studies are required. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. Source