San Bortolo General Hospital

Vicenza, Italy

San Bortolo General Hospital

Vicenza, Italy
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Ongaro E.,University of Udine | Buoro V.,University of Udine | Cinausero M.,University of Udine | Caccialanza R.,Clinical Nutrition Service | And 11 more authors.
Gastric Cancer | Year: 2017

Sarcopenia is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Malignancy is a major determinant of sarcopenia, and gastric cancer (GC) is among the most common causes of this phenomenon. As sarcopenia is a well-recognized poor prognostic feature in GC and has been associated with worse tolerance of surgical and medical treatments, members of the multidisciplinary team should be aware of the clinical relevance, pathogenic mechanisms, and potential treatments for this syndrome. The importance of sarcopenia is often underestimated in everyday practice and clinical trials, particularly among elderly or fragile patients. As treatment options are improving in all disease stages, deeper knowledge and greater attention to the metabolic balance in GC patients could further increase the benefit of novel therapeutic strategies and dramatically impact on quality of life. In this review, we describe the role of sarcopenia in different phases of GC progression. Our aim is to provide oncologists and surgeons dealing with GC patients with a useful tool for comprehensive assessment and timely management of this potentially life-threatening condition. © 2017 The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association

Basile D.,University of Udine | Garattini S.K.,University of Udine | Bonotto M.,University of Udine | Ongaro E.,University of Udine | And 19 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2017

Introduction: In the last few years, significant advances in molecular biology have provided new therapeutic options for colorectal cancer (CRC). The development of new drugs that target the immune response to cancer cells seems very promising and has already been established for other tumor types. In particular, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors seems to be an encouraging immunotherapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an update of the current evidence related to this topic, though most immunotherapies are still in early-phase clinical trials for CRC. To understand the key role of immunotherapy in CRC, the authors discuss the delicate balance between immune-stimulating and immune-suppressive networks that occur in the tumor microenvironment. Expert opinion: Modulation of the immune system through checkpoint inhibition is an emerging approach in CRC therapy. Nevertheless, selection criteria that could enable the identification of patients who may benefit from these agents are necessary. Furthermore, potential prognostic and predictive immune biomarkers based on immune and molecular classifications have been proposed. As expected, additional studies are required to develop biomarkers, effective therapeutic strategies and novel combinations to overcome immune escape resistance and enhance effector response. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Aprile G.,University of Udine | Aprile G.,San Bortolo General Hospital | Negri F.V.,University of Parma | Giuliani F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 12 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2017

Despite recent biological insight and therapeutic advances, the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer still remains poor. For more than 15 years, gemcitabine monotherapy has been the cornerstone of first-line treatment. Recently, prospective randomized trials have shown that novel upfront combination regimens tested in prospective randomized trials have resulted in improved patients' outcome increasing the proportion of putative candidate to second-line therapy. There is no definite standard of care after disease progression. A novel formulation in which irinotecan is encapsulated into liposomal-based nanoparticles may increase the efficacy of the drug without incrementing its toxicity. NAPOLI-1 was the first randomized trial to compare nanoliposomal irinotecan and fluorouracil-leucovorin (5-FU/LV) to 5-FU/LV alone after a gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. This review focuses on the current data for the management of second-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, presents the most interesting ongoing clinical trials and illustrates the biologically-driven future options beyond disease progression. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Cinausero M.,University of Udine | Aprile G.,University of Udine | Aprile G.,San Bortolo General Hospital | Ermacora P.,University of Udine | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Mucositis is a common complication of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted agents. It often affects compliance to anticancer therapies as it frequently causes schedule delays, interruptions or discontinuations of treatment. Moreover, the economic impact related to the management of mucositis is topical and several estimations of additional hospital costs due to this clinical condition have been recently reported. The ability to determine risk factors for mucositis, to early detect its onset, to assess correctly the degree of this toxicity and to plan its multidisciplinary management are all key elements to guarantee the quality of life of patients and to avoid useless dose reduction or interruption of treatment. The pathogenesis of mucositis is multifactorial and it is classily subdivided into oral and gastrointestinal mucositis according to its anatomic presentation. Treatment and patients' related factors might help in predicting the frequency and the potential degree of symptoms onset. Here we discuss about clinical presentation and pathogenesis of mucositis in relation to different kinds of treatments. Moreover, we focus on therapeutic and prevention strategies, describing past and present management according to international guidelines and the most promising new data about agents potentially able to further improve the treatment of mucositis in the next future. © 2017 Cinausero, Aprile, Ermacora, Basile, Vitale, Fanotto, Parisi, Calvetti and Sonis.

Zanusso G.,University of Verona | Fiorini M.,University of Verona | Ferrari S.,University of Verona | Gajofatto A.,University of Verona | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2011

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the commonest form of human prion diseases, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Current criteria for intra vitam diagnosis include a distinct phenotype, periodic sharp and slow-wave complexes at electroencephalography (EEG), and a positive 14-3-3-protein assay in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In sCJD, the disease phenotype may vary, depending upon the genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), a site of a common methionine/valine polymorphism, and two distinct conformers of the pathological prion protein. Based on the combination of these molecular determinants, six different sCJD subtypes are recognized, each with distinctive clinical and pathologic phenotypes. We analyzed CSF samples from 127 subjects with definite sCJD to assess the diagnostic value of 14-3-3 protein, total tau protein, phosphorylated181 tau, and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide 1-42, either alone or in combination. While the 14-3-3 assay and tau protein levels were the most sensitive indicators of sCJD, the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value wereobtained when all the above markers were combined. The latter approach also allowed a reliable differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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