San Antonio Zoo

San Antonio, TX, United States

San Antonio Zoo

San Antonio, TX, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Cerveny S.N.S.,San Antonio Zoo | Harper J.,Texas Specialty Veterinary Services | Coke R.L.,San Antonio Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Niemiller M.L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Glorioso B.M.,U.S. Geological Survey | Fenolio D.B.,San Antonio Zoo | Reynolds R.G.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Copeia | Year: 2016

Salamander species that live entirely in subterranean habitats have evolved adaptations that allow them to cope with perpetual darkness and limited energy resources. We conducted a 26-month mark-recapture study to better understand the individual growth and demography of a population of the Big Mouth Cave Salamander (Gyrinophilus palleucus necturoides). We employed a growth model to estimate growth rates, age at sexual maturity, and longevity, and an open population model to estimate population size, density, detectability, and survival rates. Furthermore, we examined cover use and evidence of potential predation. Individuals probably reach sexual maturity in 3-5 years and live at least nine years. Survival rates were generally high (>75%) but declined during the study. More than 30% of captured salamanders had regenerating tails or tail damage, which presumably represent predation attempts by conspecifics or crayfishes. Most salamanders (>90%) were found under cover (e.g., rocks, trash, decaying plant material). Based on 11 surveys during the study, population size estimates ranged from 21 to 104 individuals in the ca. 710 m2 study area. Previous surveys indicated that this population experienced a significant decline from the early 1970s through the 1990s, perhaps related to silvicultural and agricultural practices. However, our data suggest that this population has either recovered or stabilized during the past 20 years. Differences in relative abundance between early surveys and our survey could be associated with differences in survey methods or sampling conditions rather than an increase in population size. Regardless, our study demonstrates that this population is larger than previously thought and is in no immediate risk of extirpation, though it does appear to exhibit higher rates of predation than expected for a species believed to be an apex predator of subterranean food webs. © 2016 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.


Espinasa L.,Marist College | Espinasa M.,SUNY Ulster County Community College | Fenolio D.B.,San Antonio Zoo | Slay M.E.,AArkansas Field Office | Niemiller M.L.,University of Kentucky
Subterranean Biology | Year: 2014

The "thysanuran" (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae) Speleonycta ozarkensis is the only troglobiotic nicoletiid from the Ozark Highlands. It was originally described with only four specimens from four different cave systems in Arkansas and Oklahoma. The scarcity of available specimens has made it difficult to determine whether morphological variation among populations represents intraspecific or interspecific variation. We examined molecular (16S rRNA) variation among populations and found no evidence that they represent a species complex. Because of its limited distribution and lack of ecological and life history data, S. ozarkensis may be a species of conservation concern. We therefore conducted a conservation status assessment. We bioinventoried 44 caves in Arkansas and Oklahoma to determine the distribution of S. ozarkensis. A new locality in Adair Co., Oklahoma, was discovered and new specimens were collected to better assess morphological variation among populations. Data on ecology and life history was gathered. We determined the conservation status of the species and identified potential threats to existing populations. Despite being known from a few localities, S. ozarkensis has a broad distribution approaching 10,000 km2. Molecular data suggest S. ozarkensis is capable of considerable dispersal and is primarily an epikarstic species, perhaps explaining why it has been infrequently collected from caves. Conservation assessments revealed that S. ozarkensis is at a slight risk of extinction. We identified seven threats impacting populations that vary in scope and severity, but only recreational caving (three caves) and development associated with urbanization (one cave) have the greatest potential to immediately impact populations. © Luis Espinasa et al.


Setser K.,University of Granada | Mocino-Deloya E.,University of Granada | Pleguezuelos J.M.,University of Granada | Lazcano D.,Autonomous University of Nuevo León | Kardon A.,San Antonio Zoo
Journal of Zoology | Year: 2010

Our understanding of snake biology is heavily biased towards species and populations occurring at higher latitudes. In particular, little information is available concerning the biology of the numerous species of Mexican rattlesnakes. We studied the reproductive ecology of female Mexican lance-headed rattlesnakes Crotalus polystictus in a montane (c. 2500 m a.s.l.) valley of the Rio Lerma, in the Mexican state of México. We collected data from 162 different females and 203 litters over 4 years (2004-2007). Parturition coincided with summer monsoon rains, with the majority of females giving birth in late June and early July. Larger females and females gestating larger litters typically gave birth earlier in the summer than did smaller females and females gestating smaller litters. Some females matured rapidly; 26 females reproduced as 3-year olds, 17 as 2-year olds and a single female reproduced at 1 year of age. Females commonly reproduced in consecutive years. Litter size and mean neonate size increased with maternal body length; however, the relative clutch mass did not vary with female size. The mean litter size was 7.3 neonates (range 3-15), and the mean neonate body length (snout-vent length) and mass were 198 mm and 8.7 g. Neonate size varied less than did other litter characteristics. Rapid maturity, frequent reproduction and synchronization of parturition with seasonal precipitation are consistent with previously observed patterns of snake reproduction at lower latitudes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Zoological Society of London.


News Article | June 18, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A very rare blind catfish species formerly known to live only in Mexico has been found in an underwater cave in Texas. The live fish, seen in a deep limestone cave back in May at Amistad National Recreation Area near Del Rio, were identified as the Mexican blindcat or the Prietella phreatophila. This small pair’s species was confirmed by ichthyology curator Dean Hendrickson of the University of Texas at Austin, and they have been brought inside the San Antonio Zoo. The discovery supports the belief that watery caves below the Rio Grande basin in Texas and Northern Mexican state Coahuila may connect the American state and Mexican parts of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer, which is the fish’s only known dwelling so far. Hendrickson said that rumors of blind and white catfishes being spotted in the area have been swirling since the 1960s — yet this is the first confirmed sighting of the species. “I’ve seen more of these things than anybody, and these specimens look just the ones from Mexico,” he said. Back in April 2015, Jack Johnson, resource manager for the Amistad National Park Service, first saw a number of the eyeless fish. From there he worked with a team of biologists to find more of the fish last month. The endangered Mexican blindcat is slow-swimming, grows up to 3 inches long, and maintains a light pink hue because its blood is visible through its translucent skin. It exists in groundwater exclusively. Where the cave-dwelling species reside, eyes, speed, and pigmentation do not appear to be necessary like they would be in surface creatures, as these fish have evolved abilities to successfully inhabit total darkness. This species was described originally back in 1954, a time when it was detected in springs and wells in Coahuila. Afterwards it was deemed endangered by the government of Mexico and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and was sought out in multiple expeditions in Texas and Mexico. The findings lead the total number of blind catfish species in the U.S. to three, all discovered in Texas. The newly spotted fish joins the toothless blindcat and the widemouth blindcat, which both reside in Edwards Aquifer. Johnson warned that aquifer systems supporting this unique fish are facing threats and challenges from contamination and the excessive pumping of groundwater. A look into the condition of the Amistad fish will lend insight into the overall condition of the aquifer along with related water resources. The fish have not been made available for public viewing and will be kept alive in a special facility that can accommodate aquifer and cave species at the zoo. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


Niemiller M.L.,Yale University | Graening G.O.,California State University, Sacramento | Fenolio D.B.,San Antonio Zoo | Godwin J.C.,Auburn University | And 4 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2013

The delimitation of cryptic species and lineages is a common finding of phylogenetic studies. Species previously considered to be of low conservation priority might actually be comprised of multiple lineages with substantially smaller geographic ranges and smaller populations that are of much greater conservation concern and that require different conservation strategies. Cryptic biodiversity is an especially common finding in phylogenetic studies of subterranean fauna; however, most cryptic lineages remain undescribed and have not been subjected to conservation assessments. As many subterranean species are of high conservation concern, the conservation assessment of cryptic lineages is important for developing effective conservation and management strategies. In particular, some lineages might be in need of immediate conservation action even before formal taxonomic description. Here we explore this issue by conducting IUCN Red List and NatureServe conservation assessments on recently discovered cryptic lineages of the southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus) species complex. We ascertained threats associated with extinction risk, identified priority lineages and populations for immediate conservation efforts, and identified knowledge gaps to expedite the development of conservation and management strategies before formal taxonomic description. Most cryptic lineages are at an elevated risk of extinction, including one lineage classified as "Critically Endangered." We identified ten threats impacting cavefish lineages that vary in both scope and severity, including groundwater pollution, hydrological changes from impoundments, and over-collection. Our threat assessments and recommendations can be used by stakeholders to prioritize effective and appropriate management initiatives aiding in the conservation of these lineages even before they are formally recognized. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Cerveny S.N.S.,San Antonio Zoo | Thompson M.E.,Texas Veterinary Pathology Associates | Corner S.M.,Illinois College | Swinford A.K.,Texas A&M University | Coke R.L.,San Antonio Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

A 16-yr-old male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) was presented for lethargy and anorexia. A cutaneous abdominal mass extending from the pubis to just caudal to the xiphoid process was present. A biopsy revealed histologic lesions consistent with an atypical mycobacterial infection consisting of diffuse, severe, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with clear vacuoles and 3-5 μm, intravacuolar, faintly eosinophilic, filamentous bacilli that stained positively with FiteFaraco modified acid-fast stain. The clouded leopard had biochemical findings suggestive of chronic renal failure and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of tissues collected at postmortem examination revealed multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the oral cavity, liver, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes, bilateral testicular seminomas, thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid C cell adenoma, and biliary cystadenomas. Bacterial culture and molecular sequencing identified the causative agent of the cutaneous abdominal mass as belonging to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


McAllister C.T.,Eastern Oklahoma State College | Bursey C.R.,Pennsylvania State University | Fenolio D.,San Antonio Zoo | Niemiller M.L.,Yale University
Comparative Parasitology | Year: 2013

One of 4 Georgia blind salamanders (25%), Eurycea wallacei from Dougherty County, Georgia, U.S.A., were found to be infected in its small intestine with a Bothriocephalus sp. tapeworm; a single E. wallacei from Jackson County, Florida, U.S.A., was negative. Because the internal anatomy of this worm was immature, species identity was not possible. This is the first definitive report of any parasite from this G2 ranked (globally imperiled) host and a new distribution record for the genus.


PubMed | San Antonio Zoo
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2013

A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.


PubMed | San Antonio Zoo
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2013

A 16-yr-old male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) was presented for lethargy and anorexia. A cutaneous abdominal mass extending from the pubis to just caudal to the xiphoid process was present. A biopsy revealed histologic lesions consistent with an atypical mycobacterial infection consisting of diffuse, severe, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with clear vacuoles and 3-5 microm, intravacuolar, faintly eosinophilic, filamentous bacilli that stained positively with FiteFaraco modified acid-fast stain. The clouded leopard had biochemical findings suggestive of chronic renal failure and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of tissues collected at postmortem examination revealed multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the oral cavity, liver, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes, bilateral testicular seminomas, thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid C cell adenoma, and biliary cystadenomas. Bacterial culture and molecular sequencing identified the causative agent of the cutaneous abdominal mass as belonging to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group.

Loading San Antonio Zoo collaborators
Loading San Antonio Zoo collaborators