Ceron-Carrasco J.P.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2017
The unique photochemistry of diarylethene dyes can be tuned to design photoactivatable drugs. However, their biological mechanism of action has not yet been determined but tentatively ascribed to photoinduced effects on DNA. Herein, we performed theoretical simulations to provide comprehensive insights into the cell death that occurs after the irradiation of diarylethenes-dosed tissues. It is shown that diarylethenes intercalate between DNA base pairs only if the central ring is closed, while two possible pathways might be envisioned for such DNA-photochrome adducts: (i) the use of visible light to open the core ring and release the diarylethene without damaging DNA; or (ii) to produce a degradation of the DNA upon 300–400 nm light radiation. The latter photodamage is characterized by a large charge transfer in the DNA→ diarylethene direction. The described computational protocol might be used to open up new synthetic routes for diarylethenes with clinical applications, e.g., by screening electroacceptor substituent groups to optimize the rates of radiation-induced damage to DNA. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Arias J.L.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Castejon F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education | Year: 2012
Investigators' increased interest in teaching game tactics requires generalizable assessment instruments that are appropriate to whatever is needed by the tactic. This literature review aims to provide information about the instruments most frequently used to assess tactics in youth sports. We found that very few studies used instruments that fulfilled the criteria required by this review. The most frequently used tool was The Game Performance Assessment Instrument, followed by the Team Sport Assessment Procedure. Some other instruments, labeled Nonhabitual instruments, were only used sporadically. The instruments were mainly used in invasion and net/wall games. Each instrument defined a set of components and indexes to quantify the assessment, but only the Game Performance Assessment Instrument allows the assessment of the attack and the defense both of the player who possesses the ball and the player who does not. Suggestions were proposed for instruments to be used for assessing tactics. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Wu J.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies |
Wu J.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Izpisua Belmonte J.C.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Cell | Year: 2016
The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
De Baranda P.S.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Ayala F.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010
The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3±2.5 years; 176.33±8.35cm; 74.42±10.80kg) and 51 women (20.7±1.6 years; 163.43±6.57cm; 60.12±7.88kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (PROM: 0.08°, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (PROM: 15.14°, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ayala F.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
De Baranda AnduJar P.S.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3 different durations of active stretch (12 × 15, 6 × 30, and 4 × 45 seconds) in a hamstring stretching exercise program on lower extremity range of motion (ROM) in young adults. A total of 150 subjects (age, 21.3 ± 2.5 years; height, 173. 33 ± 8.35 cm; weight, 70.42 ± 10.80 kg) completed this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (3 treatment groups and 1 control group). The 3 treatment groups participated in an active stretching program 3 times per week for a 12-week period, holding each stretch exercise for a duration of 15, 30, or 45 seconds. The total daily dose of the stretches was 180 seconds for each group. The control group did not stretch. Passive hip flexion ROM was determined through the bilateral straight leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program using an inclinometer. Statistical analysis (p , 0.05) revealed a significant interaction of length of stretching program and improvement in ROM. Post hoc analysis showed that all 3 treatment groups increased hip flexion ROM from their initial values; however, the control group did not. No significant differences were found between the 3 treatment groups. This study indicates that 12 × 15-, 6 × 30-, and 4 × 45-second single durations of active stretching were equally effective at increasing hamstring length when performed 3 days per week for 12 weeks in this population. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Rubio-Arias J.A.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Menopause | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate published, randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on lean mass in postmenopausal women. METHODS:: The following electronic databases were searched from September to October 2015: PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane. Two different authors tabulated, independently, the selected indices in identical predetermined forms. The methodological quality of all randomized trial studies was evaluated according to the modified PEDro scale. In each trial, the effect size of the intervention was calculated by the difference between pre- and postintervention lean mass in WBVT postmenopausal women. For controlled trials, the effect size of the WBVT was also calculated by the difference in lean mass after the WBVT and in control participants. RESULTS:: Of the 189 articles found from the database search and all duplicates removed, 5 articles were analyzed. The lean mass of 112 postmenopausal women who performed either WBVT or a control protocol was evaluated. The methodological quality of the trials was high, where the mean score was 8 out of a possible 10 points. No significant improvements in lean mass with WBVT were found in postmenopausal women. In addition, there was no significant difference in lean mass between WBVT and control postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS:: This meta-analysis demonstrated that WBVT alone may not be a sufficient stimulus to increase lean mass in postmenopausal women. Thus, additional complimentary training methods with WBVT are needed to increase muscle size in women with lower hormonal responses. © 2016 by The North American Menopause Society.
Martinez-Pardo E.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Romero-Arenas S.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Alcaraz P.E.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different amplitudes of whole-body vibrations on the development of strength, mechanical power of the lower limb, and body composition. Thirty-eight recreationally active participants took part in the study. Participants were divided in two experimental groups (low amplitude group [GL] = 2 mm; high amplitude group [GH] = 4 mm) and a control group. The experimental groups performed an incremental vibratory training, 2 days per week during 6 weeks. The frequency of vibration (50 Hz), time of work (60 seconds), and time of rest (60 seconds) were constant for GL and GH groups. All the participants were on the platform in a static semi-squat position. Maximum isokinetic strength, body composition, and performance in vertical jumps (squat and countermovement jumps) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the training cycle. A significant increase of isokinetic strength was observed in GL and GH at angular velocities of 608 s21, 1808 s21 and 2708 s21. Total lean mass was significantly increased in GH (0.9 ± 1.0 kg). There were no significant changes in the total fat mass in any of the groups. Significant changes were not observed in different variables (height, peak power, and rate of force development) derived from the vertical jumps for any of the groups submitted to study. The vibration training, whatever the amplitude, produced significant improvements in isokinetic strength. However, high vibration amplitude training presents better adaptations for hypertrophy than the training with low vibration amplitude. In this sense, GH would be a better training if the practitioners want to develop both strength and hypertrophy of the lower limbs. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Garrido-Escudero A.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013
Learning chemical nomenclature is part of many students' first contact with chemistry. Generation after generation of students has come to love chemistry after successfully overcoming the "barriers" of the first difficulties in the learning process. Other students fail and abandon the study of chemistry forever. A tool named FORMula, which is a combination of the words FORM (i.e., shape) and formula, has been developed to reduce or eliminate barriers in the process of learning inorganic chemistry nomenclature. The method uses two-dimensional polygonal or circular shapes and panels (representing ions) that can be assembled only in ways permitted by the rules of nomenclature to create compounds. This method can be used to help students in determining the name of a compound given its chemical formula and in determining a chemical formula of a compound when given its name. This method can help any new chemistry student, but particularly students affected by color-vision deficiencies, severe visual impairments, or blindness. Students can practice individually or in groups, in the classroom or at home. The method can also be used to help understand the periodic table, element properties (such as oxidation states), the stoichiometries of chemical reactions, and the application of nomenclature rules in inorganic chemistry. © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.
Alcaraz P.E.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Elvira J.L.L.,University Miguel Hernández |
Palao J.M.,University of Murcia
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014
One of the most frequently used methods for training the sprint-specific strength is the sled towing. To date, no studies have been conducted to explore the effects of this method after a training period in well-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of resisted sprint training with sled towing. Twenty-two trained athletes experienced in the use of weighted sled (WS) participated in the study. They conducted the same 3-week training to level their initial condition. After that they were distributed in two groups, unresisted (UR) and WS training. They carried out the same 4-week, 2 days/week sprint-specific training, only differing in that the experimental group performed sprints with a (WS) which caused a reduction of 7.5% of their maximum velocity. Pre- and posttest were conducted which included the measurement of sprint kinematics, muscular strength (including isoinertial, isokinetic, and jump measurements), and sprinting stiffness (leg and vertical). Results show different adaptations in the groups although no interaction effect was found. The WS group improved the velocity in the transition phase, while the UR group improved the velocity in the maximum velocity phase. No improvements in the height of the jump tests were found. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Romero-Arenas S.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University |
Martinez-Pascual M.,Hospital General Universitario Santa Lucia |
Alcaraz P.E.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013
Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime.