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Senthil-Kumar M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Mysore K.S.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research
Nature Protocols | Year: 2014

Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is widely used in various plant species to downregulate the expression of a target plant gene. TRV is a bipartite, positive-strand RNA virus with the TRV1 and TRV2 genomes. To induce post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), the TRV2 genome is genetically modified to carry a fragment of the target gene and delivered into the plant (along with the TRV1 genome) by agroinoculation. TRV1- and TRV2-carrying Agrobacterium strains are then co-inoculated into 3-week-old plant leaves by one of three methods: a needleless syringe, the agrodrench method or by pricking with a toothpick. Target gene silencing occurs in the newly developed noninoculated leaves within 2-3 weeks of TRV inoculation. The TRV-VIGS protocol described here takes only 4 weeks to implement, and it is faster and easier to perform than other gene silencing techniques that are currently available. Although we use Nicotiana benthamiana as an example, the protocol is adaptable to other plant species. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Roossinck M.J.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNAdependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Udvardi M.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Poole P.S.,John Innes Center
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legume root nodules injects approximately 40 million tonnes of nitrogen into agricultural systems each year. In exchange for reduced nitrogen from the bacteria, the plant provides rhizobia with reduced carbon and all the essential nutrients required for bacterial metabolism. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation requires exquisite integration of plant and bacterial metabolism. Central to this integration are transporters of both the plant and the rhizobia, which transfer elements and compounds across various plant membranes and the two bacterial membranes. Here we review current knowledge of legume and rhizobial transport and metabolism as they relate to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Although all legume-rhizobia symbioses have many metabolic features in common, there are also interesting differences between them, which show that evolution has solved metabolic problems in different ways to achieve effective symbiosis in different systems. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Date: 2015-10-29

A system and methods for trapping animals including an enclosure adapted to be suspended above a trap area. The enclosure may be movable from the suspended position to a lowered position to enclose a trap area. The system further includes a user-directed control system to remotely control the position of the enclosure in order to trap animals within the enclosure.

Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Date: 2015-09-23

Some illustrative embodiments of a system for estimating forage growth at an area of interest may include a mobile support, a laser sensor, and an ultrasonic sensor. The laser sensor and the ultrasonic sensor may each be supported by the mobile support, and may each be configured to sense the forage growth at the area of interest. The laser sensor may generate laser forage data corresponding to the forage growth, and the ultrasonic sensor may generate ultrasonic forage data corresponding to the forage growth. A measured forage growth value may be determined as a function of the laser forage data and the ultrasonic forage data.

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