The Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada was established under the name of the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute in 1985 by an endowment from the Lunenfeld and Kunin families. On June 24, 2013 Larry and Judy Tanenbaum have made a transformative $35 million gift in support of research at the Mount Sinai Hospital. In recognition of the gift, the Institute was renamed the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute. It comprises 36 principal investigators, has a budget of C$90 million , has over 200 trainees and approximately 600 staff. The Institute conducts research into various forms of cancer , neurological disorders and brain illnesses, women’s and infants’ health, diabetes, developmental biology, stem cell biology and tissue regeneration, mouse models of human disease, genomic medicine and systems biology. The Institute has 100,000 sq ft of space and is split between the main hospital and the Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health Complex.The founding director was Dr. Louis Siminovitch , followed by Dr. Alan Bernstein , Drs. Janet Rossant and Anthony Pawson , Dr. Anthony Pawson and Dr. James Woodgett . Researchers are supported by the Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, donors and external funding sources including the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Cancer Society, Terry Fox Foundation, National Institutes of Health and Genome Canada. Wikipedia.
Al-Hakim A.K.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2012
Centrosomes are composed of a centriole pair surrounded by an intricate proteinaceous matrix referred to as pericentriolar material. Although the mechanisms underpinning the control of centriole duplication are now well understood, we know relatively little about the control of centrosome size and shape. Here we used interaction proteomics to identify the E3 ligase HERC2 and the neuralized homologue NEURL4 as novel interaction partners of the centrosomal protein CP110. Using high resolution imaging, we find that HERC2 and NEURL4 localize to the centrosome and that interfering with their function alters centrosome morphology through the appearance of aberrant filamentous structures that stain for a subset of pericentriolar material proteins including pericentrin and CEP135. Using an RNA interference-resistant transgene approach in combination with structure-function analyses, we show that the association between CP110 and HERC2 depends on nonoverlapping regions of NEURL4. Whereas CP110 binding to NEURL4 is dispensable for the regulation of pericentriolar material architecture, its association with HERC2 is required to maintain normal centrosome integrity. NEURL4 is a substrate of HERC2, and together these results indicate that the NEURL4-HERC2 complex participates in the ubiquitin-dependent regulation of centrosome architecture.
Jackson S.P.,University of Cambridge |
Durocher D.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute |
Durocher D.,University of Toronto
Molecular Cell | Year: 2013
Ubiquitylation and sumoylation, the covalent attachment of the polypeptides ubiquitin and SUMO, respectively, to target proteins, are pervasive mechanisms for controlling cellular functions. Here, we summarize the key steps and enzymes involved in ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation and provide an overview of how they are crucial for maintaining genome stability. Specifically, we review research that has revealed how ubiquitylation and sumoylation regulate and coordinate various pathways of DNA damage recognition, signaling, and repair at the biochemical, cellular, and whole-organism levels. In addition to providing key insights into the control and importance of DNA repair and associated processes, such work has established paradigms for regulatory control that are likely to extend to other cellular processes and that may provide opportunities for better understanding and treatment of human disease. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Drucker D.J.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Diabetes | Year: 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones that control the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin to facilitate glucose disposal. The actions of incretin hormones are terminated via enzymatic cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and through renal clearance. GLP-1 and GIP promote β-cell proliferation and survival in rodents. DPP-4 inhibitors expand β-cell mass, reduce α-cell mass, and inhibit glucagon secretion in preclinical studies; however, whether incretin-based therapies sustain functional β-cell mass in human diabetic subjects remains unclear. GLP-1 and GIP exert their actions predominantly through unique G protein-coupled receptors expressed on β-cells and other pancreatic cell types. Accurate localization of incretin receptor expression in pancreatic ductal or acinar cells in normal or diabetic human pancreas is challenging because antisera used for detection of the GLP-1 receptor often are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific to yield reliable data. This article reviews recent advances and controversies in incretin hormone action in the pancreas and contrasts established mechanisms with areas of uncertainty. Furthermore, methodological challenges and pitfalls are highlighted and key areas requiring additional scientific investigation are outlined. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
McNeill H.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2010
The fur on a cat's back, the scales on a fish, or the bristles on a fly are all beautifully organized, with a high degree of polarization in their surface organization. Great progress has been made in understanding how individual cell polarity is established, but our understanding of how cells coordinate their polarity in forming coherent tissues is still fragmentary. The organization of cells in the plane of the epithelium is known as planar cell polarity (PCP), and studies in the past decade have delineated a genetic pathway for the control of PCP. This review will first briefly review data from the Drosophila field, where PCP was first identified and genetically characterized, and then explore how vertebrate tissues become polarized during development.
Logan A.G.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013
Achieving and sustaining good blood pressure control continues to be a challenge for many reasons including nonadherence with prescribed treatment and lifestyle measures, shortage of primary care physicians especially in less populated areas, and variations in physicians' practice behaviour. Many strategies have been advocated to improve outcomes with the greatest success being achieved using nurse or pharmacist-led interventions in which they were given the authority to prescribe or alter antihypertensive treatment. However, this treatment approach, which historically involved 1-on-1 visits to a doctor's office or pharmacy, proved costly, was not scalable, and did not actively engage patients in treatment decision-making. Several electronic health interventions have been designed to overcome these limitations. Though more patient-centred and often effective, they required wired connections and a personal computer, and logging on for Internet access and navigating computer screens greatly reduced access for many older patients. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the benefits were related to better case management or technological advances. Mobile health (mHealth) technology circumvents the technical challenges of electronic health systems and provides a more flexible platform to enhance patient self-care. mHealth applications are particularly appropriate for interventions that depend on patients' sustained adherence to monitoring schedules and prescribed treatments. Studies from our group in hypertension and other chronic conditions have shown improved health outcomes using mHealth applications that have undergone rigourous usability testing. Nonetheless, the inability of most electronic medical record systems to receive and process information from mobile devices continues to be a major impediment in realizing the full potential of mHealth technology. © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.