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Dembicz I.,University of Warsaw | Kozub L.,University of Warsaw | Brzezinska K.,Zaklad Ochrony Przyrody i Krajobrazu Wiejskiego | Zaniewski P.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej | And 2 more authors.
Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica

The paper contains data on localities of 124 rare and threatened species of vascular plants, which have been found between 2010 and 2012 in open habitats in northern and central Mazovian Lowland. There are 120 species listed on regional "red lists" of neighboring areas. Moreover 30 species are also included on national "red list" and one within the Polish "red book" of vascular plants. Wetland and wet meadow species proved to be the group with most underestimated occurrence. Worth mentioning are two localities of Ostericum palustre, a species from the Polish "red book" and listed as a species protected within EU habitat directive. The presented localities of these rare species are important for better recognition of the flora of this little explored area. Obtained results increase knowledge on phytogeography and distribution of particular species. However they are most important as a base for designing a strategy for nature conservation within the studied area which proved to be much more valuable in terms of flora than previously thought. Source

White willow (Salix alba L.) dormant shoots were collected in March and cut into 30 cm segments. The basal ends were placed in containers with sand and kept in dispersed sunlight and the halogen light after dark. To induce the gravimorphic reaction the segments were oriented at the angle of 30 degrees with respect to horizontal line (stage I). After two weeks of culture the segments were turned at the angle of 150 degrees in such a way that the segments were in horizontal position and the newly formed lateral shoots were oriented according to the gravity vector (fig. 1). They were kept in such position for another 2 weeks (stage II). The growth kinetics of newly formed shoots was studied using time lapse technique. It was found that during stage I the most intensive development of lateral buds growth occurred on the upper side at apical part of the shoot segment. During stage II, the newly formed shoots started to reorient opposite to the gravity vector. The latateral shoots close to the apical end responded faster as compared to the shoots located at farther distances. The site of gravitropic response during 2-week-long experiment was moving and located always below apical part of the lateral shoot in the non-lignified zone. Microscopic observations of the newly formed lateral shoots revealed formation of secondary xylem typical for willow and in some regions the structure newly formed xylem was similar to that of tension wood. The possibility of application of 3D digital Image Correlation method for the studies of growth trajectory was tested in the preliminary experiment performed on the seedlings of Cucumis sativus (fig. 2). The preliminary results (fig. 3) indicate that the method could be applied also for the of growth trajectory of woody plants. Source

Obidzinski A.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej | Miltko R.,Instytut Fizjologii i Zywienia Zwierzat PAN | Belzecki G.,Instytut Fizjologii i Zywienia Zwierzat PAN | Bolibok L.,Katedra Hodowli Lasu

The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between ingested forage and composition of micro-fauna in the rumen of fallow deer. Rumen content of six specimens was obtained from the Bolimowska Forest during 2011/12 hunting season. Protozoa of the Entodinium and Epidinium genera belonging to the Ophryoscoleciade family were identified in analysed samples. Density of Entodinium population was positively correlated with percentage share of forage rich in starch. It was also reversely and equally strongly correlated to the share of forage rich in cellulose (p>0.05). Share of volume and biomass of Epidinium population was correlated negatively with the share of acorns in the forage (p>0.1). Differences in number and share of protozoa of the Entodinium and Epidinium genera in the rumen of fallow deer coexisting in the same place and time indicate feeding opportunism of this ruminant. Source

Tree architecture is the result of morphogenetic processes at different levels of plant body organization. These phenomena arc under endogenous and environmental control and also depend also the internal plant biomechanics. This paper reviews the problem of various aspects of tree architecture development with respect hormonal control and plant biomechanics. The role of morphogenetic field associated with auxin polar transport, formation of reaction wood and the biomechanical aspects with respect to various environmental conditions are discussed. Source

Myskow E.,Wroclaw University | Tulik M.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej

This paper reviews the structure and formation of periderm and rhytidome in organs both of coniferous and broadleaves trees, in respect to their protective role. The periderm, which is composed of three tissues such as meristematic phellogen giving rise to suberized phellem at the outer side and phelloderm at the inner side. In older organs peridem is replaced with rhytidome composed of dead cells and included subsequent periderms separated by functioning phloem cells. Additionally, the structure and classification of lenticel as well as development of cork wings is described. Source

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