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Dembicz I.,University of Warsaw | Kozub L.,University of Warsaw | Brzezinska K.,Zaklad Ochrony Przyrody i Krajobrazu Wiejskiego | Zaniewski P.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej | And 2 more authors.
Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica | Year: 2014

The paper contains data on localities of 124 rare and threatened species of vascular plants, which have been found between 2010 and 2012 in open habitats in northern and central Mazovian Lowland. There are 120 species listed on regional "red lists" of neighboring areas. Moreover 30 species are also included on national "red list" and one within the Polish "red book" of vascular plants. Wetland and wet meadow species proved to be the group with most underestimated occurrence. Worth mentioning are two localities of Ostericum palustre, a species from the Polish "red book" and listed as a species protected within EU habitat directive. The presented localities of these rare species are important for better recognition of the flora of this little explored area. Obtained results increase knowledge on phytogeography and distribution of particular species. However they are most important as a base for designing a strategy for nature conservation within the studied area which proved to be much more valuable in terms of flora than previously thought.

Obidzinski A.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej | Miltko R.,Instytut Fizjologii i Zywienia Zwierzat PAN | Belzecki G.,Instytut Fizjologii i Zywienia Zwierzat PAN | Bolibok L.,Katedra Hodowli Lasu
Sylwan | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between ingested forage and composition of micro-fauna in the rumen of fallow deer. Rumen content of six specimens was obtained from the Bolimowska Forest during 2011/12 hunting season. Protozoa of the Entodinium and Epidinium genera belonging to the Ophryoscoleciade family were identified in analysed samples. Density of Entodinium population was positively correlated with percentage share of forage rich in starch. It was also reversely and equally strongly correlated to the share of forage rich in cellulose (p>0.05). Share of volume and biomass of Epidinium population was correlated negatively with the share of acorns in the forage (p>0.1). Differences in number and share of protozoa of the Entodinium and Epidinium genera in the rumen of fallow deer coexisting in the same place and time indicate feeding opportunism of this ruminant.

Myskow E.,Wrocław University | Tulik M.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej
Sylwan | Year: 2014

This paper reviews the structure and formation of periderm and rhytidome in organs both of coniferous and broadleaves trees, in respect to their protective role. The periderm, which is composed of three tissues such as meristematic phellogen giving rise to suberized phellem at the outer side and phelloderm at the inner side. In older organs peridem is replaced with rhytidome composed of dead cells and included subsequent periderms separated by functioning phloem cells. Additionally, the structure and classification of lenticel as well as development of cork wings is described.

ZajAczkowska U.,Samodzielny Zaklad Botaniki Lesnej | Malesa M.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kujawinska M.,Warsaw University of Technology
Sylwan | Year: 2016

White willow (Salix alba L.) dormant shoots were collected in March and cut into 30 cm segments. The basal ends were placed in containers with sand and kept in dispersed sunlight and the halogen light after dark. To induce the gravimorphic reaction the segments were oriented at the angle of 30 degrees with respect to horizontal line (stage I). After two weeks of culture the segments were turned at the angle of 150 degrees in such a way that the segments were in horizontal position and the newly formed lateral shoots were oriented according to the gravity vector (fig. 1). They were kept in such position for another 2 weeks (stage II). The growth kinetics of newly formed shoots was studied using time lapse technique. It was found that during stage I the most intensive development of lateral buds growth occurred on the upper side at apical part of the shoot segment. During stage II, the newly formed shoots started to reorient opposite to the gravity vector. The latateral shoots close to the apical end responded faster as compared to the shoots located at farther distances. The site of gravitropic response during 2-week-long experiment was moving and located always below apical part of the lateral shoot in the non-lignified zone. Microscopic observations of the newly formed lateral shoots revealed formation of secondary xylem typical for willow and in some regions the structure newly formed xylem was similar to that of tension wood. The possibility of application of 3D digital Image Correlation method for the studies of growth trajectory was tested in the preliminary experiment performed on the seedlings of Cucumis sativus (fig. 2). The preliminary results (fig. 3) indicate that the method could be applied also for the of growth trajectory of woody plants.

Cladonio-Pinetum Juraszek 1927 forest is protected in Europe as the Natura 2000 habitat. Nowadays its naturalness is often considered to be doubtful. In spite of the many research, the knowledge about ecology and dynamics of this community is still insufficient. The aim of the research is to define the stability of the community within 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park. The site is located in the area of the best developed patches of the habitat, in north-western Poland. Two datasets of relevés were used. The first comes from published data and includes 123 relevés made in year 2000. The other comes from own fieldworks performed in 2014. Due to the high homogeneity of geology and soils of the study site, repeated chronosequence method could be used to compare both datasets. The information about herb and moss layers of all relevés was compared using DCA method. The change in community was measured as a shift in the position within the main gradient of DCA over 14-year period. It was calculated for 122 pairs of relevés. Than the model of the speed of community change was computed for the main gradient. We used two methods of calculation of duration of the lichen-rich pine forests. The first was based on the calculated ranges of distinguished associations and the other used the model of cover of species connected to Cladonio-Pinetum forest. As the speed of community change in the gradient and the distance between distinguished communities were known, the time of community duration could be computed. According to obtained results, Cladonia-Scots pine forest (Cladonio-Pinetum) and lichen rich fresh pine forest (Leucobryo-Pinetum with Cladonia) of 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park will last for 64-109 years. This result shows, that the considered Natura 2000 habitat is unstable. It is the possible development stage within managed forest stands and active conservation is necessary where its preservation is needed.

Tree architecture is the result of morphogenetic processes at different levels of plant body organization. These phenomena arc under endogenous and environmental control and also depend also the internal plant biomechanics. This paper reviews the problem of various aspects of tree architecture development with respect hormonal control and plant biomechanics. The role of morphogenetic field associated with auxin polar transport, formation of reaction wood and the biomechanical aspects with respect to various environmental conditions are discussed.

The anatomy and functioning of stem secondary xylem in relation to the decline of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) was examined and the hypothesis that declining trees show changes in the structure of wood, resulting in impaired water transport was tested. Anatomical analyses were carried out on samples comprising annual rings formed between 1970 and 2009 and collected at the breast height of the main stem of fifteen trees 40-90 years old. Trees were based upon health condition and classified as healthy, weakened or dead. Tree-ring widths as well as diameter and density of earlywood vessels were measured and the theoretical hydraulic conductivity index through the secondary xylem calculated by application of Hagen-Poisseuille formula. Over the whole investigated period the smallest early vessels were attribute to ashes dead at the time of sampling. In the period when dieback symptoms where manifested in the stand, the diminishment of vessels diameter occurred in weakened and eventually dead trees, whereas healthy trees produced even slightly larger vessels than before. Having large vessels implies that healthy trees were able to keep high hydraulic conductivity index, whereas trees in decline at this time produce smaller vessels and hence had reduced conductivity in respect to previous.

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