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Birmingham, AL, United States

Samford University is a private, coeducational university located in Homewood, Alabama, a suburb of Birmingham. In 1841, the university was founded as Howard College. Samford University is the 87th oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Samford Univeristy is Alabama's top-ranked private university. The university enrolls 4,933 students from 44 states and 25 countries. Samford University has been nationally ranked for academic programs, value and affordability by Kiplinger's Personal Finance, The Princeton Review and Colleges of Distinction. Wikipedia.

Collins A.,Samford University
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners | Year: 2013

Purpose: To provide primary care clinicians with practice recommendations for the safe, individualized, effective, efficient evaluation, and treatment of vitamin D status for maximum health promotion and disease prevention. Data sources: A review and synthesis of current scientific literature on vitamin D was conducted related to the physiologic impact of vitamin D, topics of debate, research and recommendations, adequate serum levels, daily supplementation, and deficiency treatment. Conclusions: Inadequate vitamin D levels are not isolated to any one geographic, ethnic, or socioeconomic population, and exist without regard to gender, age, or health status. Conflicting vitamin D evidence and recommendations may leave patients vulnerable to vitamin D inadequacy, deficiency, or excess, and in turn, avoidable negative outcomes. Implications for NPs: Nurse practitioners (NPs) must actively assess patient vitamin D status and educate patients in order to prevent negative health outcomes. Maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is an easy and cost-efficient adjunct to other health promotion and disease prevention measures. NPs who neglect the physiologic roles of vitamin D and potential patient vulnerability miss an opportunity to make an impact in both patient health and the economic healthcare burden related to acute and chronic disease. © 2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

Lockamy III A.,Samford University | McCormack K.,North Carolina State University
Industrial Management and Data Systems | Year: 2012

Purpose - To counteract the effects of global competition, many organizations have extended their enterprises by forming supply chain networks. However, as organizations increase their dependence on these networks, they become more vulnerable to their suppliers' risk profiles. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for modeling and evaluating risk profiles in supply chains via Bayesian networks. Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data from 15 casting suppliers to a major US automotive company are analyzed using Bayesian networks. The networks provide a methodological approach for determining a supplier's external, operational, and network risk probability, and the potential revenue impact a supplier can have on the company. Findings - Bayesian networks can be used to develop supplier risk profiles to determine the risk exposure of a company's revenue stream. The supplier risk profiles can be used to determine those risk events which have the largest potential impact on an organization's revenues, and the highest probability of occurrence. Research limitations/implications - A limitation to the use of Bayesian networks to model supply chain risks is the proper identification of risk events and risk categories that can impact a supply chain. Practical implications - The methodology used in this study can be adopted by managers to formulate supply chain risk management strategies and tactics whichmitigate overall supply chain risks. Social implications - The methodology used in this study can be used by organizations to reduce supply chain risks which yield numerous societal benefits. Originality/value - As part of a comprehensive supplier risk management program, organizations along with their suppliers can develop targeted approaches to minimize the occurrence of supply chain risk events. © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Purpose: It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate theoretically and empirically how the marketing strategy creation style implemented by a channel leader in a franchise system impacts the overall climate of trust within the channel system. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two important research questions: should franchisors direct franchisees in prescribed behaviors, or should the franchisees be allowed to play a more fundamental role in the strategy-making process? How does this decision affect the overall level of trust within the franchise system relationship? Design/methodology/approach: The paper investigates the impact of four common strategy-making styles in a study of 244 fast food franchise businesses and compares the findings with those previously obtained in other settings. Findings: Support was found for the hypotheses, which stated that the channel climate of franchise systems implementing the symbolic, generative, or transactive modes of strategy-making would be characterized by a higher degree of trust than would the climate of franchise systems implementing the rational mode. Research limitations/implications: The empirical test considered only one industry (the fast food industry), and only one side of the franchisor-franchisee dyad (the franchisee's perceptions) was used for the empirical tests. Originality/value: The findings of the paper contribute significantly to an overall understanding of the development of effective, successful franchise channel relationships. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Challa P.,Duke University | Arnold J.J.,Samford University
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2014

Introduction: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause for worldwide blindness and is characterized by progressive optic nerve damage. The etiology of POAG is unknown, but elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and advanced age have been identified as risk factors. IOP reduction is the only known treatment for glaucoma. Recently, drugs that inhibit rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) have been studied in animals and people for their ability to lower IOP and potentially treat POAG. ROCK inhibitors lower IOP through a trabecular mechanism and may represent a new therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of POAG. Areas covered: Exploring the place that ROCK inhibitors may occupy in our treatment of POAG requires a thorough understanding of pathophysiology and treatment. This article summarizes current research on the incidence, proposed etiologies and mechanisms of action for this drug class. ROCK inhibitor research is presented and considered in light of the current standard of pharmacologic care. Expert opinion: ROCK inhibitors alter the cell shape and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork. Preclinical studies demonstrate that these drugs have the potential to become a new therapy for glaucoma. However, ROCK inhibitors can affect multiple cell types, and their utility can be proven only after clinical studies in patients. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Erwin B.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Slaton R.M.,Samford University
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Objective: To summarize the efficacy and safety data for the use of varenicline in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Data Sources: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Library (through May 2014). Key search terms included varenicline, alcohol, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, ethanol, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Additional references were identified from literature citations. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Results were limited to clinical trials and case reports that discussed either the use of varenicline in alcohol drinking patients or adverse effects experienced with its use. Only English language studies in humans were reviewed. Data Synthesis: In all, 7 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and 1 open-label study were identified that evaluated the impact of varenicline on various drinking-related end points. The studies were conducted in patients dependent on alcohol (n = 4), non-alcohol-dependent patients (n = 3), and patients with a history of alcohol dependence but who had been abstinent for at least 6 months (n = 1). The majority of the studies classified their participants as heavy drinkers; however, this definition varied across studies. Most studies included smokers, but 2 trials included both smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusions: Evidence supports the use of varenicline for the reduction of alcohol craving as well as for the reduction of overall alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol use disorders. However, it is not likely to improve abstinence rates. Although most of the data were derived from patients with concurrent nicotine dependence, the effects of varenicline appear to occur independent of baseline smoking status. © The Author(s) 2014.

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