Samara, Ethiopia
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Biratu A.A.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Asmamaw D.K.,Samara University
International Journal of River Basin Management | Year: 2016

Soil erosion has been the most chronic problem in the Ethiopian highlands. To reduce this problem, farmers’ genuine participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) and perception about soil erosion and managing using effective and sustainable SWC activities is paramount important. This research was conducted in the Gusha Temela watershed, Arsi, Ethiopia, aiming to investigate the perception and participation of farmers on soil erosion, SWC activities and factors affecting farmers’ decisions to participate in the SWC activities. Questioner survey, interview, focus group discussion and participant observation data collection tools were used. The collected data were analysed by descriptive statistics using SPSS version 17 software. It was found that farmers have perceived the existence of soil erosion problem on their farm land and had good motives to participate in SWC activities. The respondents noted that soil erosion, causes of soil erosion and decline in productivity were the major indicators of soil erosion. Majority of the respondents (76%) participated in conserving soil by their own interest. Large household sizes, adequate labour, old age, high degree of contact with development agents (DAs), willingness to adopt new SWC technologies and their income source have been the major influencing factors for participating in SWC activities. Extension services enhanced farmers’ confidence in SWC activities and encouraged them to take possible risks associated with the initiatives. This implies that initiatives should be supported by appropriate extension services. Farmers who are highly engaged in off-farm economic activities and their land source by rent showed less participation in SWC activities mainly because of the preoccupation to earn additional income for their livelihoods. Thus, appropriate incentive mechanisms should be implemented for those engaged in off-farm activities to compensate them for the time and labour they spent in SWC activities. It was also suggested that the land policy should address the tenure security, particularly for those who are working in sharecropping and rent arrangements. © 2016 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research

Myasnikov E.,Samara University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

In this paper we consider the possibility of using several multivariate interpolation methods as a supplement to existing dimensionality reduction techniques. Analyzed methods including nearest neighbor interpolation, inverse distance weighting, radial basis functions, and data mapping error minimization are evaluated using well-known datasets. Conducted experiments showed that radial basis functions and interpolation by the data mapping error minimization outperformed other considered methods in terms of the data mapping error yielding slightly worse quality then using stochastic gradient descent method for the whole data sets without interpolation. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

Seba E.B.,Samara University | Gogie T.K.,Bahir Dar University
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2015

In this study, we analyzed ionospheric scintillation at Bahir Dar station, Ethiopia (11.6°N, 37.38°E) using GPS-SCINDA data between August 2010 and July 2011. We found that small scale variation in TEC caused high ionospheric scintillation, rather than large scale variation. We studied the daily and monthly variations in the scintillation index S4 during this year, which showed that scintillation was a post-sunset phenomenon on equinoctial days, with high activity during the March equinox. The scintillation activity observed on solstice days was relatively low and almost constant throughout the day with low post-sunset activity levels. Our analysis of the seasonal and annual scintillation characteristics showed that intense activity occurred in March and April. We also studied the dependence of the scintillation index on the satellite elevation angle and found that scintillation was high for low angles but low for high elevation angles. © 2015 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Asmamaw D.K.,Samara University
International Journal of River Basin Management | Year: 2015

It is known that river basin is the most appropriate unit for planning, developing and managing water resources and for analysing water availability and water use. However, conflicting views of water resource utilization and ownership as well as sedimentation and flooding have challenged the development of appropriate management of the Nile River basin. The riparian states’, especially Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia's, livelihood and energy source are solely dependent on the Nile River. Thus, effective and cooperative management of soil erosion/sedimentation in the upper Nile basin is increasingly important from an economic, social and environmental perspective. The Ethiopian government alone has implemented watershed management practices since 1980s which have not proved to be satisfactory. However, there is a lack of updated information concerning the Upper Nile River basin where many questions are raised from downstream and upstream states, communities and scholars. To fill this gap, the study included the following research questions: Is there updated published information about integrated river basin management (IRBM) concerning the Upper Blue Nile basin (BNB)? What effects brought the implementation of IRBM practices in the Upper BNB? What is the role of stakeholder's participation in the river basin management at various levels? How are institutions contributing for successful river basin management? Is there strong linkage between upstream and downstream countries so far? Thus to answer these questions, this review paper intends to provide comprehensive information about the IRBM impact in the upper BNB in Ethiopia. According to the study, the implemented in situ watershed management practices in the upper Blue Nile River had brought positive effects on sediment and flooding reduction as well as on improving water flow. Moreover, the upstream–downstream linkages and cooperation are essential for sustainable water resources management and equitable water share among the Nile riparian states. It was founded that strong institutions and stakeholder participation at all levels as well as appropriate policy could facilitate the river basin management implementation. It is concluded that a better understanding of the sustainable impact of river basin management in the headwaters of the BNB is of paramount importance because of the divergent interest in water resources access, and the ever-growing demand for energy and food in upstream and downstream countries. Thus, it is suggests that the negotiations of riparian states in the Nile basin should continue focusing on ‘benefit sharing’ and the win–win option. © 2015 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research.

Geto A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Geto A.,Samara University | Amare M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Amare M.,Bahir Dar University | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Glassy carbon electrode was modified by electropolymerization of 4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid. Cyclic voltammetric study of quinine showed higher current response at the modified electrode compared to the bare and activated glassy carbon electrodes in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution. Under optimized conditions, a calibration curve was obtained by square wave voltammetry at the modified electrode. The linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of quinine in the range of 1.0×10?7 to 1.0×10?5 M was Ipa (in microamperes)06.26C (in micromolars)+0.2997 (R200.999). The detection limit calculated (S/N03) was 1.42×10?8 M, which is much lower than similar reports. The method was successfully applied for the determination of quinine in spiked human urine, and pharmaceutical formulations and recovery values >90 % were obtained. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Mengistie D.,Samara University | Kidane D.,Samara University
Agriculture (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Ethiopia has been highly affected by drought and climate-related hazards, and millions of people have been left without sustenance every year. To increase productivity and diversify the livelihood scenarios as an option, small-scale irrigation (SSI) schemes have been introduced.This study assessed the impact of SSI in achieving household livelihood improvement and the major challenges of SSI practices in the Gubalafto district. Questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observation data collection tools were used. Proportionally, a total of 374 respondents were included.The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. The application of SSI improved the annual income of irrigator households from 1978.12 to 10,099 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (1 USD ≈ 20 ETB) before and after using irrigation with a standard deviation of 1534.32 compared to non-irrigators who have an annual average income of 3146.75 ETB with a standard deviation of 1838, respectively. It proved that 32.1% of irrigators increased their frequency of production due to irrigation. Shortage of water, access to improved seeds, marketing, and increment of farm input costs have been hindering SSI practices. Awareness campaigns for non-irrigators and adequate supervision for the irrigators by development agents (DAs) and district officials are important to improve the livelihood of farmers. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Geto A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Geto A.,Samara University | Amare M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Amare M.,Bahir Dar University | And 2 more authors.
Electroanalysis | Year: 2012

A poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode was developed for the voltammetric determination of nicotine. An oxidation signal at lower potential with higher current was obtained for nicotine at the polymer-modified electrode compared to bare glassy carbon electrode suggesting the electrocatalytic effect of the polymer film. Under optimum conditions, square wave voltammetry of nicotine showed oxidation at +884mV (vs. SCE) in phosphate buffer solution pH7.5. The calibration curve was linear over the range 1.0 to 200.0μM (R 2=0.9987) concentration of nicotine with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 8.66×10 -7molL -1. Application of the proposed method to cigarette tobacco samples gave acceptable recovery results of 90.7% to 107.2%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Daba T.M.,Bule Hora University | Anbesaw M.S.,Samara University
International Journal of Environmental and Science Education | Year: 2016

The study aimed at assessing factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science education in some selected secondary and preparatory schools of Afar Region. Practical activity is at the heart of mastery of science discipline and it is believed that if there is no practice either individually or in a group, all what have been learnt become inert knowledge. The implementation process of practices in science education is limited in Ethiopian schools and students in Ethiopia generally perform poorly in science subjects at secondary schools. Academically less prepared students of secondary schools prefer humanities and social sciences than science and technology in higher education. The majority of students in schools of the study area join social science. Therefore assessing factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science education in study area is important to identify root cause and forward the way for the improvement. Of the total 404 respondents from all schools, 68.81% responded as teachers do not use practical activities in teaching science and (78.71%) of them respond as they do less than 5% of the practical activities on their text books. Absence of separate and well equipped laboratory for each science, absence of efforts made by science teacher to use local material for practice of basic activities and less attention of local government and school administrative to existing problem results in less student motivation to practical activity which have influence on student’s preference to science education in the study area. Therefore, attention should be given by all concerned bodies and stakeholders to solve the problem and encourage students to science practical activities to join science classes of future science and technology graduate. © 2016 Daba and Anbesaw.

Alemayehu G.,Samara University | Zewde G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Admassu B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services. © 2012 The Author(s).

Dar P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kalaivanan R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sied N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sied N.,Samara University | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Despite significant advancements in modern vaccinology, inactivated whole virus vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remain the mainstay for prophylactic and emergency uses. Many efforts are currently devoted to improve the immune responses and protective efficacy of these vaccines. Adjuvants, which are often used to potentiate immune responses, provide an excellent mean to improve the efficacy of FMD vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate three oil adjuvants namely: Montanide ISA-201, ISA-206 (SEPPIC, France) and GAHOL (an in-house developed oil-adjuvant) for adjuvant potential in inactivated FMD vaccine. Groups of cattle (n=6) were immunized once intramuscularly with monovalent FMDV 'O' vaccine formulated in these adjuvants, and humoral (serum neutralizing antibody, IgG1 and IgG2) and cellular (lymphoproliferation) responses were measured. Montanide ISA-201 adjuvanted vaccine induced earlier and higher neutralizing antibody responses as compared to the two other adjuvants. All the adjuvants induced mainly serum IgG1 isotype antibody responses against FMDV. However, Montanide ISA-201 induced relatively higher IgG2 responses than the other two adjuvants. Lymphoproliferative responses to recall FMDV antigen were relatively higher with Montanide ISA-201, although not always statistically significant. On homologous FMDV challenge at 30 days post-vaccination, 100% (6/6) of the cattle immunized with Montanide-201 adjuvanted vaccine were protected, which was superior to those immunized with ISA-206 (66.6%, 4/6) or GAHOL adjuvanted vaccine (50%, 3/6). Virus replication following challenge infection, as determined by presence of the viral genome in oropharynx and non-structural protein serology, was lowest with Montanide ISA-201 adjuvant. Collectively, these results indicate that the Montanide ISA-201 adjuvanted FMD vaccine induces enhanced immune responses and protective efficacy in cattle. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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