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Samara, Ethiopia

Seba E.B.,Samara University | Gogie T.K.,Bahir Dar University
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2015

In this study, we analyzed ionospheric scintillation at Bahir Dar station, Ethiopia (11.6°N, 37.38°E) using GPS-SCINDA data between August 2010 and July 2011. We found that small scale variation in TEC caused high ionospheric scintillation, rather than large scale variation. We studied the daily and monthly variations in the scintillation index S4 during this year, which showed that scintillation was a post-sunset phenomenon on equinoctial days, with high activity during the March equinox. The scintillation activity observed on solstice days was relatively low and almost constant throughout the day with low post-sunset activity levels. Our analysis of the seasonal and annual scintillation characteristics showed that intense activity occurred in March and April. We also studied the dependence of the scintillation index on the satellite elevation angle and found that scintillation was high for low angles but low for high elevation angles. © 2015 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Biratu A.A.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research | Asmamaw D.K.,Samara University
International Journal of River Basin Management | Year: 2016

Soil erosion has been the most chronic problem in the Ethiopian highlands. To reduce this problem, farmers’ genuine participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) and perception about soil erosion and managing using effective and sustainable SWC activities is paramount important. This research was conducted in the Gusha Temela watershed, Arsi, Ethiopia, aiming to investigate the perception and participation of farmers on soil erosion, SWC activities and factors affecting farmers’ decisions to participate in the SWC activities. Questioner survey, interview, focus group discussion and participant observation data collection tools were used. The collected data were analysed by descriptive statistics using SPSS version 17 software. It was found that farmers have perceived the existence of soil erosion problem on their farm land and had good motives to participate in SWC activities. The respondents noted that soil erosion, causes of soil erosion and decline in productivity were the major indicators of soil erosion. Majority of the respondents (76%) participated in conserving soil by their own interest. Large household sizes, adequate labour, old age, high degree of contact with development agents (DAs), willingness to adopt new SWC technologies and their income source have been the major influencing factors for participating in SWC activities. Extension services enhanced farmers’ confidence in SWC activities and encouraged them to take possible risks associated with the initiatives. This implies that initiatives should be supported by appropriate extension services. Farmers who are highly engaged in off-farm economic activities and their land source by rent showed less participation in SWC activities mainly because of the preoccupation to earn additional income for their livelihoods. Thus, appropriate incentive mechanisms should be implemented for those engaged in off-farm activities to compensate them for the time and labour they spent in SWC activities. It was also suggested that the land policy should address the tenure security, particularly for those who are working in sharecropping and rent arrangements. © 2016 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research Source

Asmamaw D.K.,Samara University
International Journal of River Basin Management | Year: 2015

It is known that river basin is the most appropriate unit for planning, developing and managing water resources and for analysing water availability and water use. However, conflicting views of water resource utilization and ownership as well as sedimentation and flooding have challenged the development of appropriate management of the Nile River basin. The riparian states’, especially Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia's, livelihood and energy source are solely dependent on the Nile River. Thus, effective and cooperative management of soil erosion/sedimentation in the upper Nile basin is increasingly important from an economic, social and environmental perspective. The Ethiopian government alone has implemented watershed management practices since 1980s which have not proved to be satisfactory. However, there is a lack of updated information concerning the Upper Nile River basin where many questions are raised from downstream and upstream states, communities and scholars. To fill this gap, the study included the following research questions: Is there updated published information about integrated river basin management (IRBM) concerning the Upper Blue Nile basin (BNB)? What effects brought the implementation of IRBM practices in the Upper BNB? What is the role of stakeholder's participation in the river basin management at various levels? How are institutions contributing for successful river basin management? Is there strong linkage between upstream and downstream countries so far? Thus to answer these questions, this review paper intends to provide comprehensive information about the IRBM impact in the upper BNB in Ethiopia. According to the study, the implemented in situ watershed management practices in the upper Blue Nile River had brought positive effects on sediment and flooding reduction as well as on improving water flow. Moreover, the upstream–downstream linkages and cooperation are essential for sustainable water resources management and equitable water share among the Nile riparian states. It was founded that strong institutions and stakeholder participation at all levels as well as appropriate policy could facilitate the river basin management implementation. It is concluded that a better understanding of the sustainable impact of river basin management in the headwaters of the BNB is of paramount importance because of the divergent interest in water resources access, and the ever-growing demand for energy and food in upstream and downstream countries. Thus, it is suggests that the negotiations of riparian states in the Nile basin should continue focusing on ‘benefit sharing’ and the win–win option. © 2015 International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research. Source

Kidanemariam T.K.,Samara University | Kebedetesema T.,Haramaya University | Asressu K.H.,Haramaya University | Boru A.D.,Adama Science and Technology University
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical constituents of the hydrodistilled oil and n- hexane extract of L. inermis leaves. The essential oil of L. inermis leaves was analyzed using GC-MS and revealed the presence of twenty eight components. Nine components comprising 80.6°c of the total oil have been identified by MS, spectral data and by comparison with literature. According to the GC-MS results, eugenol, hexadecanoic acid, phytol, a-terpineol and etherphenylvinyl were the major components of the oil. Bisabolene was isolated from n- hexane extract and its structure was elucidated by NMR technique. Source

Mohammed E.,Samara University | Andargie G.,Health Science University | Meseret S.,Health Science University | Girma E.,Jimma University
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Incorporation of information technology advancements in healthcare has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developed countries have successfully incorporated information technology advancements in their healthcare system thus, improving healthcare. However, only a limited application of information technology advancements is seen in developing countries in their healthcare system. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals. Methods. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 health workers who were selected using stratified sampling technique from all governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data was collected from April 15 to April 30, 2010 using a structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire from five government hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data was entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Analysis was done using multinomial logistic regression technique. Results: A total of 270 participants, age ranging from 21 to 60 years responded to the survey (88.8% response rate). A total of 91 (33.7%) respondents had an adequate knowledge of computers while 108 (40.0%) had fair knowledge and 71(26.3%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge. A total of 38(14.1%) were adequately utilizing computers, 14(5.2%) demonstrated average or fair utilization and majority of the respondents 218(80.7%) inadequately utilized computers. Significant predictor variables were average monthly income, job satisfaction index and own computer possession. Conclusions: Computer knowledge and utilization habit of health workers were found to be very low. Increasing accessibility to computers and delivering training on the use of computers for workers will increases the knowledge and utilization of computers. This will facilitate the rate of diffusion of the technology to the health sector. Hence, programs targeted at enhancing knowledge and skill of computer use and increasing access to computer should be designed. The association between computer knowledge/skill and health care delivery competence should be studied. © 2013 Mohammed et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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