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Haak W.,University of Adelaide | Lazaridis I.,Harvard University | Lazaridis I.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Patterson N.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | And 54 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ∼8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ∼24,000-year-old Siberian. By ∼6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ∼4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ∼75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ∼3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Tübingen, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and 17 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2015

We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, 8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a 24,000-year-old Siberian. By 6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact 4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced 75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least 3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Independent researcher, Netherlands Institute in Turkey, University Pompeu Fabra and 14 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2015

Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europes first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height.


PubMed | Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan State University, University of Zürich, Moscow State University and 29 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2015

The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.


Tkachenko K.S.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities
Russian Journal of Marine Biology | Year: 2014

The distribution and size-age structure of Acropora corals were studied in two Maldivian atolls that differ in their geographic position and sea surface temperature regimes. The frequency and strength of thermal anomalies for the last 2 decades had a significant influence on the abundance, mortality rates, and age structures of acroporid communities. The long-term temperature amplitude was higher and the maxima were more pronounced in the northernmost Ihavandippolu Atoll than those in the equatorial South Huvadhoo Atoll. These differences resulted in a 10.4% mean cover of Acropora at Ihavandippolu Atoll, whereas the Acropora cover in the South Huvadhoo Atoll reached 59.5%. In the northern atoll, the coral mortality rate after the 2010 thermal anomaly was 3 times higher than that in the southern atoll. Younger acroporid colonies (up to 2 years old) dominated the northern atoll reefs, while the southern atoll showed a high proportion of older mature colonies. In both atolls, healthy table colonies of Acropora cytherea with a disk diameter greater than 2 m were observed that apparently survived three thermal anomalies since 1998. The mechanisms of acclimatization of Acropora and the prospects for its dominance in the Maldives under changing environmental conditions are discussed. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Vybornov A.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities | Zaitseva G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kovaliukh N.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Kulkova M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2012

Steppe and forest-steppe areas of the Povolzhye area (Caucasus and central Asia) bear much interest for the Neolithic in connection with the productive economy of the region at the time. Recent data have allowed correction of the region's chronology. A number of 14C dates denote the existence of the Neolithic in this territory as early as the 5th to 6th millennium BP. However, some questions are still under debate and require further data to clarify. © 2012 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.


Zyn V.I.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2016

The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Aniskin V.N.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities | Bogoslovskiy V.I.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Zhukova T.A.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities | Bebell K.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Internationalization has become an integral part of education. The internationalization of education, by its very nature, cannot be considered solely as part of a single culture or single country's educational system. The development of multiculturalism within education is widely discussed, but often suffers from the limited body of research based on comparative studies. The focus of this paper is to address theoretical approaches and fundamental models to aid in the development of multiculturalism within educational systems.


Tkachenko K.S.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

The ecological status of coral communities in the island area of the Nha Trang Bay (Central Vietnam) has been evaluated in March to May 2013. The material has been sampled at five stations from depths of 3–6 m using the photoquadrat method. It has been shown that characteristics of these communities markedly change with distance from the Nha Trang City and the sources of eutrophication and sediment influx: the total coral cover and the proportion of acroporids increase from 5.3% to 82.6% and from 0 to 61% respectively, while the abundance of macroalgae decreases from 41.5% to 0; the species richness of corals also increases significantly, from 7 to 68 species per station. Possible causes of the long-term changes in the coral reef ecosystems of the Nha Trang Bay are discussed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Stavitsky S.A.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Palukhin N.E.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Kobenko J.V.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Riabova E.S.,Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

Due to electric equipment development and complication it is necessary to have a precise and intense diagnosis. Nowadays there are two basic ways of diagnosis: analog signal processing and digital signal processing. The latter is more preferable. The basic ways of digital signal processing (Fourier transform and Fast Fourier transform) include one of the modern methods based on wavelet transform. This research is dedicated to analyzing characteristic features and advantages of wavelet transform. This article shows the ways of using wavelet analysis and the process of test signal converting. In order to carry out this analysis, computer software Mathcad was used and 2D wavelet spectrum for a complex function was created. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

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