Manado, Indonesia

Sam Ratulangi University
Manado, Indonesia

Sam Ratulangi University is a state university in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It was established on September 14, 1965. The current rector is Prof. Dr. Ir. Ellen Joan Kumaat, M.Sc., DEA. Wikipedia.

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Yamagishi J.,Tohoku University | Yamagishi J.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Natori A.,Tokyo Medical University | Tolba M.E.M.,Assiut University | And 9 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

To understand the molecular mechanisms of parasitism in vivo, it is essential to elucidate how the transcriptomes of the human hosts and the infecting parasites affect one another. Here we report the RNA-seq analysis of 116 Indonesian patients infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). We extracted RNAs from their peripheral blood as a mixture of host and parasite transcripts and mapped the RNA-seq tags to the human and Pf reference genomes to separate the respective tags. We were thus able to simultaneously analyze expression patterns in both humans and parasites. We identified human and parasite genes and pathways that correlated with various clinical data, which may serve as primary targets for drug developments. Of particular importance, we revealed characteristic expression changes in the human innate immune response pathway genes including TLR2 and TICAM2 that correlated with the severity of the malaria infection. We also found a group of transcription regulatory factors, JUND, for example, and signaling molecules, TNFAIP3, for example, that were strongly correlated in the expression patterns of humans and parasites. We also identified several genetic variations in important anti-malaria drug resistance-related genes. Furthermore, we identified the genetic variations which are potentially associated with severe malaria symptoms both in humans and parasites. The newly generated data should collectively lay a unique foundation for understanding variable behaviors of the field malaria parasites, which are far more complex than those observed under laboratory conditions. © 2014 Totoki et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Huffard C.L.,Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute | Caldwell R.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Boneka F.,Sam Ratulangi University
Journal of Comparative Psychology | Year: 2010

Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Boo G.H.,Chungnam National University | Park J.K.,Chungnam National University | Gerung G.S.,Sam Ratulangi University | Boo S.M.,Chungnam National University
Phycologia | Year: 2013

An examination of the type specimen of Gelidium zollingeri Sonder showed that it was incorrectly placed in Gelidium. To determine the appropriate taxonomic position, we undertook a detailed morphological examination of the holotype (National Herbarium of Victoria, Australia) as well as fresh materials collected from Sempu, the type locality, and a surrounding location Kondang Merak in Malang city, East Jawa, Indonesia. In our collections we found tetrasporangia and carposporophytes on female thalli. The vegetative and reproductive structures clearly placed it in the Halymeniales. Four sequences of rbcL and cox1, two each from Sempu and Kondang Merak, were identical. Our analysis of rbcL sequences showed that G. zollingeri formed a monophyletic clade with the two known Yonagunia species, Y. formosana and Y. tenuifolia. Consequently, we proposed the new combination, Yonagunia zollingeri, based on Gelidium zollingeri. Yonagunia zollingeri was characterized by a cartilaginous, flattened thallus that was subcostate in lower parts, with cystocarpic leaflets that arose on terminal branchlets and round to heart-shaped tetrasporangial leaflets. Yonagunia is now known to occur in Indonesia, Japan (Okinawa), Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. © Phycologia 2013.

Wardhana,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2011

Nowadays, people have been eating lots of unhealthy dietary excesses, that make them have chronic inflammatory diseases or known as chronic diseases. Countless millions of people worldwide can not help eating selectively massive quantities of unhealthy foods, until they become sick, often mortality. The omega-6 fatty acids account for the majority of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) in the food supply. They are the pre-dominant PUFA in all diets, especially the western diets, which produce pro-inflammatory metabolic products. The persistent antigenic or cytotoxic effects will lead to chronic inflammation. Olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. Its compression-extracted oil from the fruit has a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. It had been used as aphrodisiacs, emollients, laxatives, nutritives, sedatives, and tonics. In the later part of the 20th century, several studies had revealed that the olives in the Mediteranian diet is linked to a reduced incidence of degenerative diseases. It is one of phytomedicine which has omega-3 fatty acid as its constituent, may inhibit inflammation composing chronic inflammatory process in many chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and even cancer.

Wardhana,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2010

Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral lesions which occur either in single or multiple forms in oral mucosa. The mouth is subjected to a wide spectrum of antigenic agents, including foodstuff, and allergic reactions to such antigens may manifest in a number of diverse ways. Food allergy, however, has not been widely investigated as the cause of RAS. The main complaint of RAS typically is pain, and the main therapy is still corticosteroids, besides avoiding allergenic foodstuff. In RAS, there is often a genetic basis. More than 42 percent of patients with RAS have first-degree relatives with RAS. The likelihood of RAS is 90 percent when both parents are affected, but only 20 percent when neither parent has RAS, and it is also likely to be more severe and to start at an earlier age in patients with a positive family history. The primary goals of therapy of RAS are relief of pain, reduction of ulcer duration, and restoration of normal oral function. The secondary goals include reduction in frequency and severity of recurrences and maintenance of remission. Diagnostic elimination diets are frequently utilized both in diagnosis and management of RAS caused by food allergy. Patients with RAS may have increased levels of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and/or decreased CD4+ T-lymphocytes. There may be a reduced percentage of "virgin" T-cells and an increased of "memory" T-lymphocytes. Patients with active RAS have an increased proportion of gd T-cells compared with healthy control subjects and RAS patients with inactive disease. The gd T-cells may play a role in ADCC and it is believed that gd T-cells play a role in immunological damages. Preventive treatment is a consideration for patients with RAS caused by food allergy who report regular exacerbations of their condition. It focuses on dietary modifications, the earliest stage, the prodromal stage, and attempts to intercept ulcer development again by the use of topical immunosuppressant and particularly corticosteroids.

Muliawati Y.,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2012

Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a devastating and debilitating aspect at any stage of malignancy. It presents primarily as anorexia, weight loss and muscle wasting secondary to inadequate oral intake and metabolic changes. This syndrome is highly prevalent among cancer patients, has a large impact on morbidity and mortality, and impinges on patient quality of life. The pathogenic mechanisms of CACS are multifactorial. It is suggested to be the result of tumor-host interactions and cytokines have a siginificant role. Diagnosis of cancer cachexia is complex and multifaceted and requires meticulous clinical examination of the patient. The challenge for clinicians is to know how best to manage the symptoms of weight loss and anorexia for optimal patient outcome. This article outlines the diagnosis of cancer cachexia, reviews its impact on patient quality of life and survival, and updates the reader on potential therapies that may suppress it.

In the last decade quite a number of interest have been shown in a healthier food products and one of its efforts was to modify the fatty acids components into an unsaturated one,such product is known as Lipid Specific Structured (LSS). Synthesis of lipid structured using interesterification process will be beneficial to improve the functional properties and nutritive value of fat and oil as expected in some processed products. Enzymatic interesterification of North Sulawesi skipjack(Katsuwonus palamis) fish oil which extracted using wet rendering process and regiospecific analysis using1H-NMR and13C-NMR to identify fatty acid in Sn1, 2 and 3 had been studied. The analysis results showed that in position Sn-1 and Sn-3 were subtituted by lauric acid and in position Sn-2 was still occupied by the fatty acid of skipjack fish oil such as the one contain ω-3 – PUFA. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Susilawati,Sam Ratulangi University
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

East Indonesia is classified as underdeveloped regions, especially in rural areas. Still found many unhealthy homes with limited available water anyway. Both of these problems resulted in a low quality of life. Encouraged by this challenge, and then developed a system-trap-rainwater engineering to provide water availability and lock-brick technology for a healthy home. The principle of system-trap-rainwater engineering are set the rainfall water on household yard remained in the yard by install the system to trap rainwater, keep and manage to meet the water need for life. This system consists of wells-trap-rainwater and drain-trap-rainfall-water, which interconnected as a network inflow to wells-traprainwater. The availability of adequate water can be used to develop agricultural-yard system to improve food security. The lock-brick technology is to build itself a healthy home at low cost. Dugouts when creating wells, utilized as a base material for making lock-brick. After a sufficient amount of lock-brick to build a house, and then compiled interlocking brick as new healthy house. It could be conclude that both system-trap-rainwater engineering and lock-brick technology could improve the quality of life. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Tilaar W.,Sam Ratulangi University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to obtain new buds of kulo chrysanthemum by in vitro propagation technique or in vitro multiplication. It's also aimed to discover the influence of NAA and BAP in kulo chrysanthemum bud multiplication. This study used completely randomized design which was arranged by factorial with treatments which consisted of 0 ppm; 0,5 ppm; 1 ppm of NAA which were combined with 1 ppm; 2 ppm; 3 ppm of BAP. The explants used were kulo chrysanthemum nodules. Observed variables consisted of: budding time, callusing time, number of buds, height of buds, number of leaves, umber of roots, length of roots, percentage of grown cultures, percentage of unresponsive cultures, percentage of contaminated cultures. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance and continued by 5 % LSD test. The result was that there were interactions between NAA and BAP in their influence on number of buds, height of buds, number of roots, root length. NAA and BAP individually influenced the number of leaves.

Datau E.A.,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2010

to study the efficacy of Nigella sativa in central obese men on serum free testosterone, body weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid, uric acid, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and side effects in the treatment group compare to control. an experimental, clinical test, double blinded with placebo control, pre-test and post-test design. Subjects are 30-45 years old, divided into the treatment and control groups, and evaluated weekly for 3 months. Data obtained were subjective complaints, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, serum free testosterone, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, uric acid, creatinin, SGOT and SGPT, adiponectin, and hs-CRP. Data collected from March 2007 to June 2007 at Prof.Dr.RD Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive for subjects characteristic and drug's side effect, t independent to compare between two parametric independent variables, Mann-Whitney U to compare between two non-parametric independent variables, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to compare between two non-parametric dependent variables. in the treatment group, complaints related to central obesity disappear in first week, very significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, insignificant reduction in serum free testosterone, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol-HDL, uric acid, hs-CRP, and insignificant increase of adiponectin. On comparison between both groups, we found a very significant reduction on body weight and waist circumference, but the insignificant reduction on serum free testosterone, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the unsignificant increase of adiponectin, meanwhile the reduction of serum free testosterone in the treatment group was smaller than the control group, that means Nigella sativa could inhibit the decreasing of serum free testosterone. No side effects were detected in the treatment group. although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM. It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.

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