Manado, Indonesia

Sam Ratulangi University
Manado, Indonesia

Sam Ratulangi University is a state university in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It was established on September 14, 1965. The current rector is Prof. Dr. Ir. Ellen Joan Kumaat, M.Sc., DEA. Wikipedia.

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AIM: to investigate the efficacy of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy to improve functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).METHODS: a double-blind random clinical trial was performed in 99 patients with CHF who had received EECP therapy at Jade Cardiovascular Clinic, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia between January 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups, i.e. 49 subjects had sham EECP therapy and 50 subjects had EECP therapy. All subjects performed six-minute walking test (6MWT) before and after receiving EECP therapy.RESULTS: there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the basic characteristics of patients with CHF. The 6MWT result before EECP therapy showed that there were 30 patients (61.2%) with walk distance of <300 meter in the sham EECP group; while in the group receiving EECP therapy, we found 34 patients (68%); p=0.24. Post-EECP therapy, there were 33 patients (67.3%) with walk distance of <300 meters in EECP sham group; while in the group receiving EECP alone, there was only 1 patient (2%); p<0.01.The 6MWT walk distance in sham group before EECP therapy was 252.65 (SD 97.55) meters and it was 243.65 (SD 86.96) meters following the EECP therapy; p=0.18. In EECP group, the 6MWT walk distance before therapy was 256.88 (SD 85.56) meters and after EECP therapy the walk distance was 449.46 (SD 92.08) meters; p<0.01.CONCLUSION: EECP therapy is effective to improve functional capacity in patients with CHF.

Amelia A.,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2016

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a serious problem worldwide that affect the increment of morbidity and mortality rate; Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBL is one of the causes. However, there are still limited information regarding diagnosis and management of ESBL-E infection. Detection of ESBL-E requires certain steps that are problematic and time consuming. Diagnosis and management of ESBL-E infection have become more and more challenging due to limited diagnostic method available and choice of antibiotics that may be used, along with growing subtyped of ESBL through various of mutations. This article is aimed to give an overview on current situation of ESBL-E infections, with a focus on diagnosis and management of such infection by reviewing several recent studies on related issue.

Nainggolan N.,Sam Ratulangi University | Titaley J.,Sam Ratulangi University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

Generalized Space Time Autoregressive (GSTAR) model has an assumption of constant variance (homoscedastic). In this paper we described the development of GSTAR model by a variance of error is not constant, it changes over time (heteroscedastic), hence the term is heteroscedastic GSTAR model. The variance is modeled as the ARCH or GARCH models. Parameter estimation of the model used maximum likelihood method. The least squared method used to estimate the mean equation parameters, then the error terms parameters estimated by maximum likelihood method. © 2017 Author(s).

Huffard C.L.,Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute | Caldwell R.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Boneka F.,Sam Ratulangi University
Journal of Comparative Psychology | Year: 2010

Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Wardhana,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2011

Nowadays, people have been eating lots of unhealthy dietary excesses, that make them have chronic inflammatory diseases or known as chronic diseases. Countless millions of people worldwide can not help eating selectively massive quantities of unhealthy foods, until they become sick, often mortality. The omega-6 fatty acids account for the majority of PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids) in the food supply. They are the pre-dominant PUFA in all diets, especially the western diets, which produce pro-inflammatory metabolic products. The persistent antigenic or cytotoxic effects will lead to chronic inflammation. Olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. Its compression-extracted oil from the fruit has a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. It had been used as aphrodisiacs, emollients, laxatives, nutritives, sedatives, and tonics. In the later part of the 20th century, several studies had revealed that the olives in the Mediteranian diet is linked to a reduced incidence of degenerative diseases. It is one of phytomedicine which has omega-3 fatty acid as its constituent, may inhibit inflammation composing chronic inflammatory process in many chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and even cancer.

Wardhana,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2010

Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral lesions which occur either in single or multiple forms in oral mucosa. The mouth is subjected to a wide spectrum of antigenic agents, including foodstuff, and allergic reactions to such antigens may manifest in a number of diverse ways. Food allergy, however, has not been widely investigated as the cause of RAS. The main complaint of RAS typically is pain, and the main therapy is still corticosteroids, besides avoiding allergenic foodstuff. In RAS, there is often a genetic basis. More than 42 percent of patients with RAS have first-degree relatives with RAS. The likelihood of RAS is 90 percent when both parents are affected, but only 20 percent when neither parent has RAS, and it is also likely to be more severe and to start at an earlier age in patients with a positive family history. The primary goals of therapy of RAS are relief of pain, reduction of ulcer duration, and restoration of normal oral function. The secondary goals include reduction in frequency and severity of recurrences and maintenance of remission. Diagnostic elimination diets are frequently utilized both in diagnosis and management of RAS caused by food allergy. Patients with RAS may have increased levels of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and/or decreased CD4+ T-lymphocytes. There may be a reduced percentage of "virgin" T-cells and an increased of "memory" T-lymphocytes. Patients with active RAS have an increased proportion of gd T-cells compared with healthy control subjects and RAS patients with inactive disease. The gd T-cells may play a role in ADCC and it is believed that gd T-cells play a role in immunological damages. Preventive treatment is a consideration for patients with RAS caused by food allergy who report regular exacerbations of their condition. It focuses on dietary modifications, the earliest stage, the prodromal stage, and attempts to intercept ulcer development again by the use of topical immunosuppressant and particularly corticosteroids.

Muliawati Y.,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2012

Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a devastating and debilitating aspect at any stage of malignancy. It presents primarily as anorexia, weight loss and muscle wasting secondary to inadequate oral intake and metabolic changes. This syndrome is highly prevalent among cancer patients, has a large impact on morbidity and mortality, and impinges on patient quality of life. The pathogenic mechanisms of CACS are multifactorial. It is suggested to be the result of tumor-host interactions and cytokines have a siginificant role. Diagnosis of cancer cachexia is complex and multifaceted and requires meticulous clinical examination of the patient. The challenge for clinicians is to know how best to manage the symptoms of weight loss and anorexia for optimal patient outcome. This article outlines the diagnosis of cancer cachexia, reviews its impact on patient quality of life and survival, and updates the reader on potential therapies that may suppress it.

In the last decade quite a number of interest have been shown in a healthier food products and one of its efforts was to modify the fatty acids components into an unsaturated one,such product is known as Lipid Specific Structured (LSS). Synthesis of lipid structured using interesterification process will be beneficial to improve the functional properties and nutritive value of fat and oil as expected in some processed products. Enzymatic interesterification of North Sulawesi skipjack(Katsuwonus palamis) fish oil which extracted using wet rendering process and regiospecific analysis using1H-NMR and13C-NMR to identify fatty acid in Sn1, 2 and 3 had been studied. The analysis results showed that in position Sn-1 and Sn-3 were subtituted by lauric acid and in position Sn-2 was still occupied by the fatty acid of skipjack fish oil such as the one contain ω-3 – PUFA. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Susilawati,Sam Ratulangi University
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

East Indonesia is classified as underdeveloped regions, especially in rural areas. Still found many unhealthy homes with limited available water anyway. Both of these problems resulted in a low quality of life. Encouraged by this challenge, and then developed a system-trap-rainwater engineering to provide water availability and lock-brick technology for a healthy home. The principle of system-trap-rainwater engineering are set the rainfall water on household yard remained in the yard by install the system to trap rainwater, keep and manage to meet the water need for life. This system consists of wells-trap-rainwater and drain-trap-rainfall-water, which interconnected as a network inflow to wells-traprainwater. The availability of adequate water can be used to develop agricultural-yard system to improve food security. The lock-brick technology is to build itself a healthy home at low cost. Dugouts when creating wells, utilized as a base material for making lock-brick. After a sufficient amount of lock-brick to build a house, and then compiled interlocking brick as new healthy house. It could be conclude that both system-trap-rainwater engineering and lock-brick technology could improve the quality of life. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).

Datau E.A.,Sam Ratulangi University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2010

to study the efficacy of Nigella sativa in central obese men on serum free testosterone, body weight, waist circumference, blood sugar, lipid, uric acid, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and side effects in the treatment group compare to control. an experimental, clinical test, double blinded with placebo control, pre-test and post-test design. Subjects are 30-45 years old, divided into the treatment and control groups, and evaluated weekly for 3 months. Data obtained were subjective complaints, body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, serum free testosterone, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, uric acid, creatinin, SGOT and SGPT, adiponectin, and hs-CRP. Data collected from March 2007 to June 2007 at Prof.Dr.RD Kandou General Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive for subjects characteristic and drug's side effect, t independent to compare between two parametric independent variables, Mann-Whitney U to compare between two non-parametric independent variables, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test to compare between two non-parametric dependent variables. in the treatment group, complaints related to central obesity disappear in first week, very significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, insignificant reduction in serum free testosterone, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol-HDL, uric acid, hs-CRP, and insignificant increase of adiponectin. On comparison between both groups, we found a very significant reduction on body weight and waist circumference, but the insignificant reduction on serum free testosterone, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the unsignificant increase of adiponectin, meanwhile the reduction of serum free testosterone in the treatment group was smaller than the control group, that means Nigella sativa could inhibit the decreasing of serum free testosterone. No side effects were detected in the treatment group. although the other variables in the treatment group were not significantly different, we found them better than the control group, which can be a good sign for metabolic restoration in COM. It is suggested that larger dose and longer duration of NS consumption will give better results.

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