Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Allahabad, India

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and science , formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute is a government aided deemed university located in Allahabad, India.Established in 1910 by Dr. Sam Higginbottom as Allahabad Agricultural Institute towards improving the economic status of rural population. It became the first institute in India to offer a degree in Agricultural Engineering in 1942.As a tribute to its founder, the institution submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2009 to re-christen Allahabad Agricultural Institute as Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and science. The Institute was conferred deemed university status on 15 March 2000 and got certified as a Christian Minority Educational Institution in December 2005. The MHRD has placed SHIATS in the list of elite category 'A' deemed universities on the basis of the expert committee recommendation.The academic infrastructure of the university is organized into eight faculties — which are divided into twenty two constituent schools. It contains a total of seventy eight academic departments and three research centres with emphasis on scientific, agricultural, technological education and research. Since its inception, the institute has produced many notable scientists, geneticists and agricultural engineers. While having completed its own hospital, Hayes Memorial Mission Hospital, the university is in the process of starting a medical college as per Medical Council of India norms. Wikipedia.

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Maurya D.P.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Singla A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Negi S.,Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology
3 Biotech | Year: 2015

Second-generation bioethanol can be produced from various lignocellulosic biomasses such as wood, agricultural or forest residues. Lignocellulosic biomass is inexpensive, renewable and abundant source for bioethanol production. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol could be a promising technology though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efficient pretreatment methods for total delignification of lignocellulosics. Proper pretreatment methods can increase concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, thereby improving the efficiency of the whole process. Conversion of glucose as well as xylose to bioethanol needs some new fermentation technologies to make the whole process inexpensive. The main goal of pretreatment is to increase the digestibility of maximum available sugars. Each pretreatment process has a specific effect on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin fraction; thus, different pretreatment methods and conditions should be chosen according to the process configuration selected for the subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation steps. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass in current technologies is relatively high. Additionally, low yield still remains as one of the main challenges. This paper reviews the various technologies for maximum conversion of cellulose and hemicelluloses fraction to ethanol, and it point outs several key properties that should be targeted for low cost and maximum yield. © 2015, The Author(s).

Singh S.K.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Prakash V.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of present study was to assess the total antioxidant activity and phytochemical constituents (i.e. total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, non protein thiols and vitamin C) in ethanolic crude extracts of Oxalis corniculata, Phyllanthus fraternus and Trichosanthes cucumerina plants. Methods: The total antioxidant activity was assayed by DPPH free radicals scavenging method. The phytochemicals in the ethanolic extracts of plants were determined quantitatively using standard methods. Results: DPPH radicals scavenging activity was evaluated on concentration dependent and observed maximum in Phyllanthus fraternus with IC50 values 202.22 ±1.89 μg/ml in comparison to Oxalis corniculata. Antioxidant activity in the plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina was found to be highest in the fruits than its leaves, stem and roots where least activity was perceived in roots at all concentrations of extracts. The phytochemicals screening showed that Phyallanthus fraternus had greater strength with 19.67 ± 0.68 mg flavonoids, 4.63 ± 0.14 mg carotenoids, 1.39 ± 0.16 mg ascorbic acid and 33.50 ± 1.14 μmole non protein thiols each in 100mg RW. Trichosanthes cucumerina fruits displayed maximum phytochemicals over leave, stem, root and contained 2.43 ± 0.14 mg phenols, 16.33±0.78 mg flavonoids, 2.48±0.12 mg carotenoids, 0.89±0.13 mg ascorbic acid and 29.34 ±1.22 μmole non protein thiols each per 100mg RW. All values were found significantly different at α = 0.05, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The study concluded that ethanolic extracts of Phyallanthus fraternus have better antioxidative potential than Oxalis corniculata and Trichosanthes cucumerina fruit however all of three are good sources of natural antioxidants.

Kumar U.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Prakash V.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

Indian medicinal plants (Casia fistula, Cinnamomum cassia, Acacia catechu and Citrus limon) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition and vitamins content. Methanolic extracts of the bark of these plant species showed high antioxidant activity and Casia fistula possessed the highest percent inhibition of DPPH (91.66%) amongst all studied plants. The results also revealed the presence of substantial amount of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids (1.31 to 1.64 mg/100g DW), flavonoids (36.2 to 76.2 mg/100g DW), saponins (0.883 to 2.251 mg/100g DW), tannins (0.45 to 0.85 mg/100g DW) and total phenol content (110 to 210.2 mg/100g DW) where Casia fistula was observed comparatively richer source of these phytochemicals. The medicinal plants had the erratic concentrations of vitamins and contained carotenoids (104 to 135 mg/100g DW), ascorbic acid (18.05 to 55.04 mg/100g DW), thiamine (0.12 to 0.28 mg/100g DW), riboflavin (0.11 to 0.42 mg/100g DW) and niacin (0.02 to 0.08 mg/100g DW). The results provided the evidence that the studied medicinal plants are to be potent source of natural antioxidant and medicinally important compounds.

Mandotra S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mandotra S.K.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Kumar P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Suseela M.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ramteke P.W.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113±0.05g/L and 489±23mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh U.P.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Synlett | Year: 2012

(A) Kouznetsov et al. had developed a simple and efficient one-pot method for the synthesis of novel 2,4-diaryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines using a three-component imino Diels-Alder cycloaddition between trans-isoeugenol or trans-anethole, anilines, and benzaldehyde in the presence of BF3·OEt2 in PEG 400.13 (B) Jorapur et al. reported the synthesis of dibenz[b,f]-1,4- oxazepine via intramolecular cyclization and revealed the utility PEG 400 as recyclable reaction medium.14 (C) Guchhait and Madaan reported the Ugi-type multicomponent reaction of heterocyclic amidines with aldehydes and isocyanides catalyzed by zirconium(IV) chloride in PEG 400. This protocol offers the rapid, environmentally friendly and regioselective synthesis of medicinally important N-fused 2- and 3-aminoimidazoles in good to high yields.15 (D) Reddy et al. developed a synthetic route to afford styrylfurans in good yields via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between isocyanides, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in PEG 400.16 (E) Shitole et al. reported the synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromenes by condensation of aromatic aldehyde, malononitrile, and α-naphthol. 17 (F) Zhang et al. disclosed the role of PEG 400 as an efficient catalyst to synthesize quinaoxalines via condensation of 1,2-diamines with 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions.18 (G) Liang et al. reported a metal-free synthesis of amides by direct oxidative amidation of aldehydes with amines in a PEG 400/oxidant system in good to excellent yields.19 (H) Wang et al. reported a Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines synthesis via a one-pot condensation of aldehydes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, and ammonium acetate in PEG 400. This method has the advantages of good yields, less pollution, and simple reaction conditions.20 (I) Bhosle et al. reported an efficient one-pot three-component cyclocondensation of 4-(p-tolyl sulfonoxy) benzaldehyde, aryl amines, and mercaptoacetic acid in PEG 400 to yield 2,3-disubstituted 4-thiazolidinones. 21 (J) Karnakar et al. developed a simple, efficient and eco-friendly synthetic protocol for the synthesis of pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines via a one-pot three-component reaction of aldehydes, amino pyrazole, and 1,3-cyclohexanediones using recyclable PEG 400 as reaction medium.22 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

Verma A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: Present communication deals with the study of antihepatotoxic activity and molecular prediction of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus debelis in order to search lead compound. Methods: Five compounds from the whole plant of P. debelis were subjected to molecular properties prediction and drug-likeness by Lipinski rule of five & Molinspiration software. Results: All the compounds were found in compliance with Lipinski 'Rule of Five' except the Milog P valve of compound No. I-IV were found above five means these compounds have less permeability across the cell membrane. The Milog P valve of Compound No V & standard compound silibinin VI were found below five, suggest that the molecules have good permeability across the cell membrane. In respect of TPSA, all the compounds were within the limit i.e. 160 å. The bioactivity score was also calculated for GPCR ligand, ion channel modulator, kinase inhibitor, nuclear receptor ligand. All the compound showed activity through enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Our study shows that compound V debelolactone has good drug likeness score with no violations & good bioactivity score as compared to silibinin which is potent hepatoprotective drug. So compound V debelolactone can be a lead compound with hepatoprotective activity from Phyllanthus debelis. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Verma A.K.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Gupta S.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute | Isaac R.K.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) version 2.0 was evaluated for its capability to simulate crop growth and salinity profiles under various combinations of fresh and saline water use for irrigation at Agra (India), located in a semiarid monsoon climatic region having a deep water table. Best available water (BAW, EC 3.6. dS/m) was used for pre-sowing irrigation to wheat crop and thereafter, twelve treatment combinations were imposed with four replications to supplement missed BAW water irrigations with saline water (EC 6/8 and 12. dS/m). The model was calibrated and validated using measurements made in field trial during 2000-2003. A close agreement was observed between the measured data and simulated values. SWAP simulated and observed values for the relative yield ranged within absolute deviations of 4.2-9.7%. The validated model was later used to illustrate the consequences of long-term use of saline water on crop growth and salinity profiles. Simulated results confirmed that a yield potential exceeding 80% could be maintained by substituting saline waters up to 8. dS/m in the absence of fresh water following a pre-sowing irrigation with BAW. This strategy helps to overcome the build-up of salts particularly in years when the monsoon rainfall is below average. It could be shown and concluded that seasonal build-up of salts due to use of saline water in winter season (November-April) crops is leached during the monsoon season (June-September) when rainfall at least during the months of July and August exceeds the potential evapotranspiration. On the whole, short-term field observations could be confirmed with application of SWAP that long-term use of saline water in monsoon climate under deep water table conditions is sustainable. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lawrence R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Lawrence K.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of garlic (Allium sativum) of the family Alliaceae in an yield of 0.2% (v/w). Methods: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrogen oxide scavenging, reducing power and β -carotene bleaching assays were conducted. BHT and gallic acid were kept as standards. Results: IC 50 values observed for DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays were 0.5 mg/mL and 50 μ g/mL respectively. In reducing power assay absorbance increased linearly with increasing concentration of the oil, in β -carotene bleaching method also there is 84% bleaching in first one hour and it decreased to 45 % by the completion of second hour. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate garlic essential oil is effective in scavenging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

Singh U.P.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Bhat H.R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences | Gahtori P.,Dibrugarh University
Journal de Mycologie Medicale | Year: 2012

Objective: Present research communication was towards the investigation of antifungal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fingicidal concentration (MFC) activity of some substituted clubbed thiazole-1,3,5-triazines derivatives and effect of physicochemical properties on bioactivity. Material and methods: MIC and MFC were evaluated against . Candida albicans, . Candida glabrata, . Cryptococcus neoformans and . Aspergillus niger using modified microdilution method recommended by CLSI. Cytotoxicity was determinate on the viability of marine shrimp larvaes. SAR and physicochemical correlations were studied by Molinspiration software. Results: The . 5 and . 9 derivatives showed an excellent antifungal activity with MIC lower than fluconazole and equivalent to amphotericin B specially against . C. . albicans and . C. . glabrata. The toxicity of these two derivatives was non-existent for . 5 and moderate for . 9 at the used concentration. SAR study around prototype molecule suggests that presence of di-hydrophobic fragment on 1,3,5-triazine is necessary for antifungal activity than halogen substituted aromatic amine. Conclusion: On the basis of selectivity, potency and non-toxicity, we have obtained two molecules (5 and 9) as prospective leads for further research work on 1,3,5-triazine as antifungal drug. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Srivastava R.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
Pharmacognosy Reviews | Year: 2014

Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer′s Oleander. «Jaundice curative tree» in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.

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