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Newport, RI, United States

Salve Regina University is a university in Newport, Rhode Island. Founded by the Sisters of Mercy, the university is a Catholic, co-educational, private, non-profit institution chartered by the State of Rhode Island in 1934 located within the Diocese of Providence. In 1947 the university acquired Ochre Court and welcomed its first class of 58 students. By a 1991 amendment to the Charter, College was deleted as the institution officially became Salve Regina University. Wikipedia.

Ward J.A.,Cornell University | Bhangoo J.,Sector 18 | Fernandez-Fernandez F.,East Malling Research EMR | Moore P.,Washington State University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species.Results: Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs) linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison.Conclusions: GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in R. idaeus, which may help to identify deleterious alleles that are the basis of inbreeding depression in the species. © 2013 Ward et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Shen J.,Indiana University Bloomington | Keithly M.E.,Vanderbilt University | Armstrong R.N.,Vanderbilt University | Higgins K.A.,Indiana University Bloomington | And 3 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is both a lethal gas and an emerging gasotransmitter in humans, suggesting that the cellular H2S level must be tightly regulated. CstB is encoded by the cst operon of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and is under the transcriptional control of the persulfide sensor CstR and H2S. Here, we show that CstB is a multifunctional Fe(II)-containing persulfide dioxygenase (PDO), analogous to the vertebrate protein ETHE1 (ethylmalonic encephalopathy protein 1). Chromosomal deletion of ethe1 is fatal in vertebrates. In the presence of molecular oxygen (O2), hETHE1 oxidizes glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to generate sulfite and reduced glutathione. In contrast, CstB oxidizes major cellular low molecular weight (LMW) persulfide substrates from S. aureus, coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) and bacillithiol persulfide (BSSH), directly to generate thiosulfate (TS) and reduced thiols, thereby avoiding the cellular toxicity of sulfite. Both Cys201 in the N-terminal PDO domain (CstBPDO) and Cys408 in the C-terminal rhodanese domain (CstBRhod) strongly enhance the TS generating activity of CstB. CstB also possesses persulfide transferase (PT; reverse rhodanese) activity, which generates TS when provided with LMW persulfides and sulfite, as well as conventional thiosulfate transferase (TST; rhodanese) activity; both of these activities require Cys408. CstB protects S. aureus against H2S toxicity, with the C201S and C408S cstB genes being unable to rescue a NaHS-induced δcstB growth phenotype. Induction of the cst operon by NaHS reveals that functional CstB impacts cellular TS concentrations. These data collectively suggest that CstB may have evolved to facilitate the clearance of LMW persulfides that occur upon elevation of the level of cellular H2S and hence may have an impact on bacterial viability under H2S misregulation, in concert with the other enzymes encoded by the cst operon. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Malhotra R.,University of Connecticut | Patel V.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chikkaveeraiah B.V.,University of Connecticut | Munge B.S.,Salve Regina University | And 9 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Multiplexed biomarker protein detection holds unrealized promise for clinical cancer diagnostics due to lack of suitable measurement devices and lack of rigorously validated protein panels. Here we report an ultrasensitive electrochemical microfluidic array optimized to measure a four-protein panel of biomarker proteins, and we validate the protein panel for accurate oral cancer diagnostics. Unprecedented ultralow detection into the 5-50 fg·mL -1 range was achieved for simultaneous measurement of proteins interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF-C in diluted serum. The immunoarray achieves high sensitivity in 50 min assays by using off-line protein capture by magnetic beads carrying 400 000 enzyme labels and ∼100 000 antibodies. After capture of the proteins and washing to inhibit nonspecific binding, the beads are magnetically separated and injected into the array for selective capture by antibodies on eight nanostructured sensors. Good correlations with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for protein determinations in conditioned cancer cell media confirmed the accuracy of this approach. Normalized means of the four protein levels in 78 oral cancer patient serum samples and 49 controls gave clinical sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 98% for oral cancer detection, demonstrating high diagnostic utility. The low-cost, easily fabricated immunoarray provides a rapid serum test for diagnosis and personalized therapy of oral cancer. The device is readily adaptable to clinical diagnostics of other cancers. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Verinis J.P.,Salve Regina University
Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Sociologia | Year: 2014

A vast array of processes we might identify with the terms reand de-peasantization are occurring in Greece, in conjunction with the emerging post-productivist moralities and aesthetics of European countrysides and along with the absolute lack of consensus as to what neo-rural means or how it should be managed by local, national, and EU institutions, especially in the European periphery. Rural sociologists, social geographers, anthropologists and other scholars concerned with rural Greece have long confirmed the ‘backwardness’ that has supposedly plagued it since the state's inception. More recent work has focused on how new global migrants suffer from xenophobia and exploitation in rural Greek areas. Yet my fieldwork has gradually revealed significant Greek/ non-Greek co-ethnic endeavours in ‘traditional’ small-scale agriculture that have the potential to contribute different information to a post-colonial rural Greek history. Small-scale olive farmers in semi-mountainous areas who have found themselves economically uncompetitive for example, especially in light of the current European financial crisis, have developed a variety of unprecedented relationships with many immigrants they now work with, from Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine most notably. In reclaiming abandoned fields and centuries-old farm enterprises as well as collecting traditional foodstuffs that few ‘modern’ Greeks collected until recently, immigrant farmers link rural Greeks back to their agrarian lives and traditional Greek agricultural practices to new international value-added food markets for boutique or heritage products. These developments, outside the historical confines of the binary relationship between Greece and northern Europe or the United States, as alternative readings of global Greek countrysides, embody significant solutions to the most prescient problems in contemporary rural Greek communities. © 2014, Babes-Bolyai University. All rights reserved. Source

VanDerwarker A.M.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Marcoux J.B.,Salve Regina University | Hollcnbach K.D.,University of Tennessee
American Antiquity | Year: 2013

The material remains of daily subsistence within Cherokee communities reflect strategies that households enacted while adapting to disruptions associated with European colonialism. Plant subsistence remains dating from the late Pre-Contact period through the end of the Revolutionary War (A.D. 1300-1783) reveal how Cherokee food producers/collectors fed their families as they navigated an increasingly uncertain landscape. Framing our analysis in terms of risk mitigation and future- discounting concepts from human behavioral ecology, we argue that Cherokee households responded to increasing risk and uncertainty by shifting towards subsistence strategies that had more immediate rewards. Although Cherokee plant subsistence remains exhibit continuity in how people farmed and foraged, our study shows that households made strategic decisions to alter their food production and collection with respect to looming uncertainty. Archaeobotanical analysis from multiple sites spanning the Colonial period (ca.A.D. 1670-1783) reveal a stepwise process of declining maize production, increasedforaging, and overall diversification of the plant diet. This case underscores the relevance of concepts from human behavioral ecology to complex colonial situations by demonstrating that strategies of risk prevention and mitigation have applicability beyond ecological factors. Copyright © 2013 by the Society for American Archaeology. Source

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