Short communication. differentiation of type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines and field strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis [Comunicación corta. diferenciación de cepas vacunales del virus del síndrome reproductor y respiratorio porcino de tipo I y cepas de campo por análisis de polimorfismos en la longitud de fragmentos de restricción]
Diez-Fuertes F.,SALUVET |
Vazquez A.,SALUVET |
Vazquez A.,Institute Salud Carlos III |
Hornillos-Gumiel L.,SALUVET |
And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research
The use of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines is a common procedure to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in the great majority of countries from America, Asia and Europe, including Spain. Current discriminatory techniques allow the detection of different MLV type-II vaccine strains. Herein we report a rapid and accurate technique aimed to discriminate between MLV type-I vaccine strains and Spanish field strains. This technique comprises a reverse transcription (RT) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) amplification of PRRSV ORF5 followed by a digestion of RT-nPCR products with two specific endonucleases, ItaI and AccI. Combined utilization of ItaI and AccI generates restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP) patterns adequate for the differentiation of 30 Spanish field isolates, of which 12 were isolated between 1991 and 1995 and 18 between 2000 and 2003. These different RFLP patterns can be used to distinguish unequivocally between Spanish field strains of PRRSV and the three MLV type-I vaccines used in Spain: AmervacPRRS®, Pyrsvac-183® and PorcilisPRRS®. Source
Celaya R.,Servicio Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agroalimentario SERIDA |
Ferreira L.M.M.,University of Tras os Montes e Alto Douro |
Moreno-Gonzalo J.,SALUVET |
Frutos P.,University of Leon |
And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research
This work aimed to evaluate the effects of tannin-containing heather (Calluna vulgaris, Erica spp.) and energy (oats, Avena sativa) supplementation, combined or not, on feed intake, gastrointestinal nematode infections and performance of goats grazing mountain grasslands. Two successive experiments were established across one grazing season on four paddocks. The first (late April to early August, Period 1) involved two treatments, i.e., supplementation with heather (+H) vs. non-supplementation (-H), each randomly allocated to two paddocks. The second (mid-August to mid-November, Period 2) consisted on four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, i.e., supplementation with heather and oats (+H+O), only heather (+H-O), only oats (-H+O), and no supplementation (-H-O). Results from Period 1 indicated that faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) were lower in +H goats (50% less in August), achieving more favourable live weight (LW) and body condition changes than -H goats. Total dry matter intake (DMI) in June was similar between treatments, with heather accounting for 0.21 of +H goat diets. Kids FEC and LW gains were not affected by heather supplementation. In Period 2, both heather and oat supplementation reduced FEC (45 and 61%, respectively) and improved goat performance, without an interaction between both factors. Total DMI in October was higher in +H+O compared to other treatments (48 vs. 30 g DM kg LW-0.75 d-1; P < 0.01). Rumen ammonia concentration was lower (P < 0.001) in +H than in -H goats, and in +O than in -O goats, whereas that of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was not affected by treatments, though the molar proportions of some VFA were modified. It is concluded that the combination of both supplements (tannins and energy) contributes to reduce gastrointestinal nematode parasitism and increases goat performance, allowing a lower dependence on conventional chemotherapy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source