Salus University was founded as Pennsylvania State College of Optometry in 1919, today is a diversified, globally recognized professional academic center of post-graduate learning located in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, United States.The University’s name, Salus is a Latin word for health and well-being. A private, nonprofit university, Salus offers a wide range of degree programs in the professions of optometry, audiology, physician assistant, blindness and low vision, occupational therapy, public health, and biomedicine. Salus has more than 1,100 students, including PhD candidates, and more than 10,000 alumni worldwide. Wikipedia.
Olshevskaya E.V.,Salus University |
Peshenko I.V.,Salus University |
Savchenko A.B.,Salus University |
Dizhoor A.M.,Salus University
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Two calcium-sensitive guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) activate cGMP synthesis in photoreceptor by retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase isozymes (RetGC1 and RetGC2) to expedite recovery, but calcium-insensitive constitutively active GCAP1 mutants cause photoreceptor degeneration in human patients and transgenic mice. Although GCAP1 and GCAP2 can both activate RetGC1 and RetGC2 in vitro,we find that GCAP1 selectively regulates RetGC1 in vivo. Furthermore, elimination of RetGC1 but not RetGC2 isozyme reverses abnormal calcium sensitivity of cGMP synthesis and rescues mouse rods in transgenic mice expressing GCAP1 mutants causing photoreceptor disease. Rods expressing mutant GCAP1 not only survive in the absence of RetGC1 but also remain functional, albeit with reduced electroretinography (ERG) amplitudes typical of RetGC1 -/- genotype. The rodERGrecovery from a strong flash, only slightly affected in both RetGC1 -/- and RetGC2 -/- mice, becomes very slow in RetGC1 -/- but not RetGC2 -/- mice when GCAP2 is not available to provide Ca 2+ feedback to the remaining RetGC isozyme. The intrinsic biochemical properties of RetGC andGCAPdetermined in vitro do not explain the observed phenomena. Instead, our results argue that there must be a cellular mechanism that limits GCAP1 access to RetGC2 and makes RetGC1 isozyme a preferential target for the disease-causing GCAP1 mutants. A more general conclusion from our findings is that nondiscriminatory interactions between homologous effector enzymes and their regulatory proteins permitted by their intrinsic biochemical properties can be effectively restricted in a living photoreceptor. © 2012 the authors.
Salus University and Wayne State University | Date: 2013-05-21
Nucleic acid vectors encoding light-gated cation-selective membrane channels, in particular channelrhodopsin-2 (Chop2), converted inner retinal neurons to photosensitive cells in photoreceptor-degenerated retina in an animal model. Such treatment restored visual perception and various aspects of vision. A method of restoring light sensitivity to a retina of a subject suffering from vision loss due to photoreceptor degeneration, as in retinitis pigmentosa or macular degeneration, is provided. The method comprises delivering to the subject by intravitreal or subretinal injection, the above nucleic acid vector which comprises an open reading frame encoding a rhodopsin, to which is operatively linked a promoter and transcriptional regulatory sequences, so that the nucleic acid is expressed in inner retinal neurons. These cells, normally light-insensitive, are converted to a light-sensitive state and transmit visual information to the brain, compensating for the loss, and leading to restoration of various visual capabilities.
News Article | November 22, 2016
SCRANTON, PA, November 22, 2016-- Joseph P. Shovlin, O.D., a senior optometrist at Northeastern Eye Institute, has been named the President of the American Academy of Optometry. He received the honor this week at the organization's annual meeting in Anaheim, California. Dr. Shovlin joined Northeastern Eye Institute in 1985 and sees patients in the Scranton and Clarks Summit offices. He is an alumnus of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry where he serves as adjunct faculty."We are so proud of Dr. Shovlin's many accomplishments," said Dr. Arthur Jordan Sr., board member of NEI. "He has continually been a leader in the optometric profession and we are thrilled that his hard work is being recognized."Dr. Shovlin is a distinguished practitioner of the National Academy of Practice, diplomate and past chair of the Section On Cornea, Contact Lenses and Refractive Technologies of the American Academy of Optometry and past chair of the Contact Lens and Cornea Section of the American Optometric Association.He has advised the Centers for Disease Control on Contact Lenses, the Lion's Eye Research Foundation in Pennsylvania and the Ophthalmic Devices' Advisory Panel of the FDA and the National Advisory Eye Council of the NIH.He is associate clinical editor of Review of Optometry and clinical editor of Review of Cornea & Contact Lenses, and a number of other reputable publications.Within the Academy, he is a member of the Finance Committee and is the Annual Meeting chair and has served on the board of directors of the American Optometric Foundation.Dr. Shovlin has received several honors and awards, including the American Optometric Association's CLCS Achievement Award (2008), the Albert Fitch Memorial Alumnus of the Year recipient for PCO at Salus University (2011) and the Legend Award of the Contact Lens and Cornea Section of the AOA (2012)."Dr. Shovlin is a gifted clinician and a wonderful person. It is a great honor to have him as a member of the Northeastern Eye Institute medical staff. We are proud that one of our most accomplished eye doctors has been named to lead the most prestigious organization in the field of optometry. This is a great accomplishment not just for Northeastern Eye Institute but also for the Northeastern Pennsylvania region in general," added Dr. Jordan.He and his wife Lisa and two children Erin and Ryan have been a wonderful part of the Northeastern Eye Institute family for over three decades.Established in 1984, Northeastern Eye Institute ( www.neivision.com ) is a leading comprehensive eye care center in Northeastern Pennsylvania with 15 locations throughout the area.Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NEIVision Twitter: https://twitter.com/northeasterneye Google +: https://plus.google.com/109558929138360628884
News Article | November 9, 2016
Diopsys, Inc. helps bring ERG testing out of the research lab and into clinical practice with a user- and patient-friendly sensor that produces reliable data. The latest advancement in electrode technology, the patented Diopsys® ERG Lid Sensor has transformed the eye care professional’s ability to perform reliable electroretinography (ERG) vision tests in their offices. The innovative sensor has a low-profile design which fits comfortably below the patient’s eye, and provides equivalent, and in some cases better results than previous electrodes. Previously available sensors can make it difficult for eye care professionals to perform accurate ERG tests in their offices and usually involve a contact lens or wire being placed across the eye, which increases the potential for damage to the cornea. These invasive electrodes often require pre-application numbing eye drops and post-sterilization between patients. Not only is this inconvenient to the clinician and uncomfortable for the patient, it can lead to compliance issues and poor results due to the excessive blinking caused by the electrode touching the eye. In some instances, the problems caused by invasive sensors have led to the use of generic skin electrodes, often designed for electromyography (EMG) or electrocardiography (EKG). The large size of these sensors often results in contact with facial muscles, which can produce inaccurate results. The Diopsys® ERG Lid Sensor was specifically designed for ERG testing to address the flaws of other electrodes. “The fact that we now have an ERG electrode that our patients are happy with, our technicians are happy with, and that provides excellent ERG results allows us to get information about the retina that we couldn’t have before. The Diopsys lid sensor technology certainly revolutionized our ability to detect disease earlier and monitor treatment and disease progression with ERG testing,” said Mitchell Jackson, MD, Founder and CEO of Jacksoneye. The patented Diopsys® ERG Lid Sensor underwent extensive development and design testing with leaders in the eye care field, including New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, Wills Eye Hospital, and Salus University. Research presented at the 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) meeting showed that the Diopsys® ERG Lid Sensor produces more repeatable amplitude results, and equivalent latency results compared to the older DTL and Ag/AgCl cup electrodes. Additional research using this advanced lid sensor technology showed the test-retest repeatability of Diopsys® ERG and Diopsys® ffERG vision tests ranged between good and excellent for all tested parameters. For more information on Diopsys® ERG vision testing, please visit http://www.diopsys.com/erg. About Diopsys Diopsys, Inc. (http://www.diopsys.com) is the leader in providing ophthalmologists and optometrists with objective, functional information to aid in the early detection of vision disorders and enhance patient management through ERG and VEP vision testing. Eye care providers can perform these objective, functional tests using the Diopsys® NOVA cart system, or the Diopsys® ARGOS™ tabletop system. The company understands the important role of early medical intervention for correctable vision problems, which can lead to an improved quality of life. Early detection means better patient outcomes. 1. Shengelia A. et al. Evaluation of pattern ERG responses using various electrodes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3943. 2. Resende A. et al. Repeatability of Steady-State Pattern Electroretinogram and Full-Field Electroretinogram using a novel office-based testing platform in normal subjects. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science September 2016, Vol.57, 3949.
Sharma R.K.,Salus University |
Duda T.,Salus University
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2014
A sequel to these authors' earlier comprehensive reviews which covered the field of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclase (MGC) from its origin to the year 2010, this article contains 13 sections. The first is historical and covers MGC from the year 1963-1987, summarizing its colorful developmental stages from its passionate pursuit to its consolidation. The second deals with the establishment of its biochemical identity. MGC becomes the transducer of a hormonal signal and founder of the peptide hormone receptor family, and creates the notion that hormone signal transduction is its sole physiological function. The third defines its expansion. The discovery of ROS-GC subfamily is made and it links ROS-GC with the physiology of phototransduction. Sections ROS-GC, a Ca2+-Modulated Two Component Transduction System to Migration Patterns and Translations of the GCAP Signals Into Production of Cyclic GMP are Different cover its biochemistry and physiology. The noteworthy events are that augmented by GCAPs, ROS-GC proves to be a transducer of the free Ca2+ signals generated within neurons; ROS-GC becomes a two-component transduction system and establishes itself as a source of cyclic GMP, the second messenger of phototransduction. Section ROS-GC1 Gene Linked Retinal Dystrophies demonstrates how this knowledge begins to be translated into the diagnosis and providing the molecular definition of retinal dystrophies. Section Controlled By Low and High Levels of [Ca2+]i, ROS-GC1 is a Bimodal Transduction Switch discusses a striking property of ROS-GC where it becomes a "[Ca2+]i bimodal switch" and transcends its signaling role in other neural processes. In this course, discovery of the first CD-GCAP (Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activator), the S100B protein, is made. It extends the role of the ROS-GC transduction system beyond the phototransduction to the signaling processes in the synapse region between photoreceptor and cone ON-bipolar cells; in section Ca2+-Modulated Neurocalcin δ ROS-GC1 Transduction System Exists in the Inner Plexiform Layer (IPL) of the Retinal Neurons, discovery of another CD-GCAP, NCδ, is made and its linkage with signaling of the inner plexiform layer neurons is established. Section ROS-GC Linkage With Other Than Vision-Linked Neurons discusses linkage of the ROS-GC transduction system with other sensory transduction processes: Pineal gland, Olfaction and Gustation. In the next, section Evolution of a General Ca2+-Interlocked ROS-GC Signal Transduction Concept in Sensory and Sensory-Linked Neurons, a theoretical concept is proposed where "Ca2+-interlocked ROS-GC signal transduction" machinery becomes a common signaling component of the sensory and sensory-linked neurons. Closure to the review is brought by the conclusion and future directions. © 2014 Sharma and Duda.
Sharma R.K.,Salus University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010
This article is a sequel to the four earlier comprehensive reviews which covered the field of membrane guanylate cyclase from its origin to the year 2002 (Sharma in Mol Cell Biochem 230:3-30, 2002) and then to the year 2004 (Duda et al. in Peptides 26:969-984, 2005); and of the Ca2+-modulated membrane guanylate cyclase to the year 1997 (Pugh et al. in Biosci Rep 17:429-473, 1997) and then to 2004 (Sharma et al. in Curr Top Biochem Res 6:111-144, 2004). This article contains three parts. The first part is "Historical"; it is brief, general, and freely borrowed from the earlier reviews, covering the field from its origin to the year 2004 (Sharma in Mol Cell Biochem, 230:3-30, 2002; Duda et al. in Peptides 26:969-984, 2005). The second part focuses on the "Ca2+-modulated ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase subfamily". It is divided into two sections. Section "Historical" and covers the area from its inception to the year 2004. It is also freely borrowed from an earlier review (Sharma et al. in Curr Top Biochem Res 6:111-144, 2004). Section "Ca2+-modulated ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase subfamily" covers the area from the year 2004 to May 2009. The objective is to focus on the chronological development, recognize major contributions of the original investigators, correct misplaced facts, and project on the future trend of the field of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclase. The third portion covers the present status and concludes with future directions in the field. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Barker II F.M.,Salus University
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2010
Objective: To evaluate results of studies that have provided information regarding the effects of dietary supplementation on visual performance, development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and risk for cataracts. Research design and methods: Studies with information about the effects of dietary supplementation were identified via PubMed searches that combined (in separate searches) the terms 'supplement' OR 'supplementation' OR 'diet' AND 'cataract' or 'macular degeneration' or 'visual' OR 'vision'. Additional references concerned with biologic effects of specific agents, measurement of visual function, and the etiology and epidemiology of cataracts and AMD were identified on the basis of PubMed conventional literature searches. Results: Studies of the effects of dietary supplementation, primarily with preparations including lutein and zeaxanthin, have demonstrated improvements in contrast sensitivity and visual performance under glare conditions that, in some studies, have been correlated with effects of treatment on macular pigment optical density. Results from both observational and prospective interventional studies generally support the conclusion that dietary supplements including these xanthophylls significantly decrease the occurrence of AMD and the development of nuclear lens opacities. However, there is variability in results regarding effects of dietary supplementation that may be related to limitations of long-term observational or interventional studies and which cannot be easily controlled or which may also be related in some studies to other important, yet unrecorded, diet-and lifestyle-related factors that are capable of influencing the risks for AMD and/or cataracts. Conclusions: The multiple benefits of dietary supplementation support the development and use of these preparations to promote optimal visual function and decrease risk for AMD and cataracts. Increasing understanding of the optimal approach to supplementation will depend upon results from interventional studies that also carefully evaluate and analyze well-established factors for these two conditions. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Schmid G.F.,Salus University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2011
Purpose.: Retinal steepness at the posterior pole was shown to be associated with peripheral refraction, and there exists strong evidence that peripheral refraction influences central refractive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinal steepness is associated with central myopic shift in children. Methods.: Central refraction was measured in OD of 140 children aged 7 to 11 years as central sphere equivalent refraction (CSER) and central sphere refraction at baseline and after ∼30 months. For the estimation of retinal steepness, relative peripheral eye length (RPEL) was determined in OD by measuring length axially with a custom-made optical low coherence interferometer and subtracting it from eye length measured peripherally at 20° in the nasal, inferior, temporal, and superior fields. Association between baseline RPEL at the various locations and shift in central refraction was evaluated with a Structural Equation Modeling analysis. Results.: CSER at baseline measured +0.05 ± 0.54 diopters (D) (mean ± SD). Shift in CSER, as standardized over a 30-month interval to account for individual differences in the follow-up period, was -0.21 ± 0.56 D. A weak, but significant, correlation was observed between baseline RPEL in the temporal retina and myopic shift in CSER (r = 0.207, p = 0.049), steeper retinas displaying greater myopic shifts. Myopic shift was correlated with axial elongation but not correlated with baseline refraction. Analyses were performed for both CSER and central sphere refraction with near-identical results. RPEL did not change significantly. Conclusions.: The significant correlation between temporal RPEL and central myopic shift, with the latter being independent of baseline refraction, supports the hypothesis that eye shape at the posterior pole is one of the factors influencing visually guided axial eye growth, possibly through associated peripheral defocus. Its predictive value for refractive development and limitation to the temporal retina require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry.
Salus University and University of Louisville | Date: 2012-10-12
The present invention relates to systems and methods for providing a push/pull perceptual learning technique to a subject demonstrating sensory eye dominance (SED) and/or amblyopia. More specifically, the weak eye of the subject is cued forcing it to become dominant, while visualization in the strong eye is suppressed over the course of a treatment regimen. Such systems and methods are shown herein to result in a perceptual learning and a reduction of interocular imbalance, as well as an improvement in the visual characteristics typically associated with very little or no SED and/or amblyopia, such as improved depth perception.
Salus University | Date: 2012-05-21
The present invention relates to transgenic animals comprising a mutation or deletion to the ANF-RGC protein, particularly to its ARM and/or its ATS-ST region. Such animals may be used to study the effects on pathways associated with ANF-RGC activation, including, but not limited to, hypertension. Such animals may also be used in drug screen assays, to establish toxicity profiles, or other similar methods discussed herein known in the art.