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Elkins Park, PA, United States

Salus University was founded as Pennsylvania State College of Optometry in 1919, today is a diversified, globally recognized professional academic center of post-graduate learning located in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, United States.The University’s name, Salus is a Latin word for health and well-being. A private, nonprofit university, Salus offers a wide range of degree programs in the professions of optometry, audiology, physician assistant, blindness and low vision, occupational therapy, public health, and biomedicine. Salus has more than 1,100 students, including PhD candidates, and more than 10,000 alumni worldwide. Wikipedia.

Lebow K.A.,Salus University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

Purpose. To evaluate the agreement between the autorefraction function of the Canon RK-F2, an autorefractor/keratometer based on the ray deflection principle, and the Carl Zeiss Vision i.ProfilerPlus, an wavefront aberrometer, compared with each other and with a noncycloplegic subjective refraction. Methods. Objective refraction results obtained using both instruments were compared with noncycloplegic subjective refractions for 174 eyes of 100 participants. Analysis of sphere, cylinder, and axis using spherical equivalent difference and a new measurement, cross-cylinder difference, was performed. The spherical equivalent refraction and cross-cylinder difference for the manifest refraction were compared using Bland-Altman limits of agreement and 95th percentile analysis. Results. The 100 participants represent 52 women and 48 men with a mean (±SD) age of 51.7 (±13.8) years, an average (±SD) spherical power of-0.67 (±2.53) diopters (D), and an average (±SD) cylinder power of-0.94 (±0.87)D. The spherical equivalent difference is 0.03 D (Canon) and-0.11 D (Zeiss). The 95% limits of agreement for the spherical equivalent are-0.69 to 0.75 D (Canon) and-0.75 to 0.75 D (Zeiss). The mean cross-cylinder power difference is-0.08 D (Canon) and 0.02 D (Zeiss). The 95% limits of agreement for the cross-cylinder power difference are 0.63 to 0.50 D (Canon) and 0.49 to 0.75 D (Zeiss). The mean axis power difference is-0.04 D (Canon) and 0.05 D (Zeiss). The 95% limits of agreement for axis power difference are-0.71 to 0.63 D (Canon) and-0.78 to 0.78 D (Zeiss). The double-angle astigmatic plot center of distribution for the RK-F2 is 0.035 D at 70 degrees, and that for the i.ProfilerPlus is 0.053 D at 32 degrees. Conclusions. Both instruments provided clinically useful spherical equivalent refractive data compared with a subjective refraction, whereas the Canon RK-F2 was slightly more accurate in determining the cylinder power compared with a subjective refraction. © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.

Duda T.,Salus University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) receptor guanylate cyclase (ANF-RGC), like the other members of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a single transmembrane-spanning protein. The transmembrane domain separates the protein into two regions, extracellular and intracellular. The extracellular region contains the ANF-binding domain and the intracellular region the catalytic domain located at the C-terminus of the protein. Preceding the catalytic domain, the intracellular region is comprised of the following functional domains: juxtaposed 40 amino acids to the transmembrane domain is the ATP-regulated module (ARM) domain [also termed the kinase homology domain (KHD)], and the putative dimerization domain. The ANF-RGC signaling is initiated by hormone, ANF, binding to its extracellular binding site. The binding signal is transduced through the transmembrane domain to the intracellular portion where ATP binding to the ARM domain partially activates the cyclase and prepares it for subsequent steps involving phosphorylation and attaining the fully activated state. This chapter reviews the signaling modules of ANF-RGC. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sharma R.K.,Salus University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

This article is a sequel to the four earlier comprehensive reviews which covered the field of membrane guanylate cyclase from its origin to the year 2002 (Sharma in Mol Cell Biochem 230:3-30, 2002) and then to the year 2004 (Duda et al. in Peptides 26:969-984, 2005); and of the Ca2+-modulated membrane guanylate cyclase to the year 1997 (Pugh et al. in Biosci Rep 17:429-473, 1997) and then to 2004 (Sharma et al. in Curr Top Biochem Res 6:111-144, 2004). This article contains three parts. The first part is "Historical"; it is brief, general, and freely borrowed from the earlier reviews, covering the field from its origin to the year 2004 (Sharma in Mol Cell Biochem, 230:3-30, 2002; Duda et al. in Peptides 26:969-984, 2005). The second part focuses on the "Ca2+-modulated ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase subfamily". It is divided into two sections. Section "Historical" and covers the area from its inception to the year 2004. It is also freely borrowed from an earlier review (Sharma et al. in Curr Top Biochem Res 6:111-144, 2004). Section "Ca2+-modulated ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase subfamily" covers the area from the year 2004 to May 2009. The objective is to focus on the chronological development, recognize major contributions of the original investigators, correct misplaced facts, and project on the future trend of the field of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclase. The third portion covers the present status and concludes with future directions in the field. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Barker II F.M.,Salus University
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate results of studies that have provided information regarding the effects of dietary supplementation on visual performance, development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and risk for cataracts. Research design and methods: Studies with information about the effects of dietary supplementation were identified via PubMed searches that combined (in separate searches) the terms 'supplement' OR 'supplementation' OR 'diet' AND 'cataract' or 'macular degeneration' or 'visual' OR 'vision'. Additional references concerned with biologic effects of specific agents, measurement of visual function, and the etiology and epidemiology of cataracts and AMD were identified on the basis of PubMed conventional literature searches. Results: Studies of the effects of dietary supplementation, primarily with preparations including lutein and zeaxanthin, have demonstrated improvements in contrast sensitivity and visual performance under glare conditions that, in some studies, have been correlated with effects of treatment on macular pigment optical density. Results from both observational and prospective interventional studies generally support the conclusion that dietary supplements including these xanthophylls significantly decrease the occurrence of AMD and the development of nuclear lens opacities. However, there is variability in results regarding effects of dietary supplementation that may be related to limitations of long-term observational or interventional studies and which cannot be easily controlled or which may also be related in some studies to other important, yet unrecorded, diet-and lifestyle-related factors that are capable of influencing the risks for AMD and/or cataracts. Conclusions: The multiple benefits of dietary supplementation support the development and use of these preparations to promote optimal visual function and decrease risk for AMD and cataracts. Increasing understanding of the optimal approach to supplementation will depend upon results from interventional studies that also carefully evaluate and analyze well-established factors for these two conditions. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Schmid G.F.,Salus University
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2011

Purpose.: Retinal steepness at the posterior pole was shown to be associated with peripheral refraction, and there exists strong evidence that peripheral refraction influences central refractive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinal steepness is associated with central myopic shift in children. Methods.: Central refraction was measured in OD of 140 children aged 7 to 11 years as central sphere equivalent refraction (CSER) and central sphere refraction at baseline and after ∼30 months. For the estimation of retinal steepness, relative peripheral eye length (RPEL) was determined in OD by measuring length axially with a custom-made optical low coherence interferometer and subtracting it from eye length measured peripherally at 20° in the nasal, inferior, temporal, and superior fields. Association between baseline RPEL at the various locations and shift in central refraction was evaluated with a Structural Equation Modeling analysis. Results.: CSER at baseline measured +0.05 ± 0.54 diopters (D) (mean ± SD). Shift in CSER, as standardized over a 30-month interval to account for individual differences in the follow-up period, was -0.21 ± 0.56 D. A weak, but significant, correlation was observed between baseline RPEL in the temporal retina and myopic shift in CSER (r = 0.207, p = 0.049), steeper retinas displaying greater myopic shifts. Myopic shift was correlated with axial elongation but not correlated with baseline refraction. Analyses were performed for both CSER and central sphere refraction with near-identical results. RPEL did not change significantly. Conclusions.: The significant correlation between temporal RPEL and central myopic shift, with the latter being independent of baseline refraction, supports the hypothesis that eye shape at the posterior pole is one of the factors influencing visually guided axial eye growth, possibly through associated peripheral defocus. Its predictive value for refractive development and limitation to the temporal retina require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry.

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