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Salt Lake City, UT, United States

Muturi E.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Costanzo K.,Canisius College | Kesavaraju B.,Salt Lake City Mosquito Abatement District | Alto B.W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Alto B.W.,University of Florida
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

Density-dependent processes such as larval competition may be important regulatory factors among some mosquito species. The application of pesticides used for control may alter these density-dependent interactions with consequences for the number of survivors and associated sublethal and chronic effects on these individuals. We examined how intraspecific competition among larvae and low concentrations of malathion alter Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse adult life history traits and competence for arboviruses using Sindbis virus as a model system. Larvae were reared at densities of 150 and 300 larvae per container and in the absence or presence of 0.04 parts per million of malathion, before surviving females were exposed to an infectious blood meal containing 105 plaque-forming units/ml Sindbis virus. For both species, competition and the presence of malathion reduced survival to adulthood. The presence of malathion eliminated the negative effects of competition that resulted in lengthened development time and smaller-sized adults. For Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, high competition conditions and the presence of malathion independently and not interactively led to an increase in virus dissemination from the midgut. Our results suggest that larval competition and chemical contaminants may influence disease transmission directly by altering adult mosquito fitness and indirectly by altering vector interactions with arboviruses. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.

Alto B.W.,University of Florida | Lampman R.L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Kesavaraju B.,Salt Lake City Mosquito Abatement District | Muturi E.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

Competitive interactions between mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) may depend on environmental conditions. Pesticides may alleviate density-dependent competition for limited food, and a differential species response to sublethal concentrations may modify interspecific competition. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to malathion alters interspecific resource competition between these two species. In the absence of malathion, Ae. aegypti survivorship and per capita rate of population change were negatively affected by increasing densities of Ae. albopictus. However, the asymmetrical negative effect of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti was eliminated in the presence of malathion. In addition, the presence of malathion resulted in shorter development time compared with the controls. The relative importance of pesticide-mediated coexistence in nature has not been evaluated, so its role in mediating coexistence is unclear; however, these findings underscore the potential of environmental concentrations of malathion, and perhaps other pesticides to facilitate coexistence between species. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Bartlett-Healy K.,Rutgers University | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Obenauer P.,Us Naval Medical Research Unit | Hughes T.,U.S. Navy | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14°C Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Kesavaraju B.,Salt Lake City Mosquito Abatement District | Afify A.,Rutgers University | Gaugler R.,Rutgers University
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that is used for the control of adult mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Recent studies have shown that malathion affects competition among mosquitoes in the larval stage. Individuals from laboratory colonies are often used in experiments but it is not known whether there is a difference between laboratory and field strains in their response to competition and malathion. Intraspecific larval competition in the presence of malathion (0.11 mg/liter) was compared between laboratory and field strains of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), a native of Asia that has established in the United States. There was no difference in the responses of the two strains to the presence of malathion. The fitness (finite growth rate) of the field strain decreased at the highest larval density tested but there was no difference in fitness across densities for the laboratory strain. This finding suggests that laboratory rearing could reduce sensitivity to crowding. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Farajollahi A.,Rutgers University | Williams G.M.,Rutgers University | Condon G.C.,Rutgers University | Kesavaraju B.,Salt Lake City Mosquito Abatement District | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2013

The bacterial agent Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a highly effective larvicide against various medically important mosquito and black fly vector species. Recent formulations of this powerful larvicidal tool have been evaluated for their field efficacy in integrated mosquito management programs. Laboratory and controlled-condition trials have indicated long periods of residual efficacy, whereas field persistence is often much lower in duration. We investigated the residual persistence of high doses of 2 formulations of Bti, a water-dispersible granule (VectoBac® WDG; 16 mg/liter) and an extruded pellet (VBC-60066; 80 mg/liter), for the management of natural larval populations of Aedes albopictus. Laboratory tests demonstrated 100% (WDG) and ≥99.7% (VBC) average mortality across all treatments over 180 days. Field tests exhibited 100% efficacy (WDG and VBC) for 3 wk against Ae. albopictus and other coinhabiting mosquito species, with some residual efficacy lasting for >4 wk. These results are discussed in relation to current field control of domestic Aedes vectors of public health significance. © 2013 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

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