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Interstitial cystitis (IC), often referred to in combination with painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder. Current therapies primarily focus on replenishing urothelial glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer using GAG analogs and managing pain with supportive therapies. However, the elusive etiology of IC and the lack of animal models to study the disease have been major hurdles developing more effective therapeutics. Previously, we showed an increased urinary concentration of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in spina bifida patients and used LL-37 to develop a mouse model of cystitis that mimics important clinical findings of IC. Here we investigate (1) the molecular mechanism of LL-37 induced cystitis in cultured human urothelial cells and in mice, (2) the protective effects of GM-0111, a modified GAG, within the context of this mechanism, (3) the physiological and molecular markers that correlate with the severity of the inflammation, and (4) the protective effects of several GAGs using these biomarkers in our LL-37 induced cystitis model. We find that LL-37 quickly induces release of ATP and apoptosis in the urothelium. These changes can be inhibited by a chemically-modified GAG, GM-0111. Furthermore, we also find that GAG analogs provide varying degrees of protection against LL-37 challenge in mice. These findings suggest that GM-0111 and possibly GAG molecules prevent the development of cystitis by blocking the apoptosis and the concurrent release of ATP from the urothelium.


Patent
SALt Inc | Date: 2013-07-10

Ice melting compositions, methods for manufacturing ice melting compositions, and methods for melting ice are disclosed. The ice melting compositions can include a coarse deicing particle nucleus and a fine deicing particle coating substantially surrounding the coarse deicing particle nucleus. The fine particle coating can be attached or bonded to the coarse particle nucleus with a binder. The coarse particle nucleus and the fine particle coating can have a variety of particle sizes.


An improved drug delivery composition and method of use is disclosed. The composition comprises one or more biodegradable block copolymer drug carriers; and a reconstitution enhancing and enabling agent comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG), a PEG derivative or a mixture of PEG and a PEG derivative. The composition can be administered as is or after being be dissolved or rapidly reconstituted in an aqueous vehicle to afford a homogeneous solution or uniform colloidal systems.


A user may claim to have not made or allowed a transaction and that the transaction was made in error. Where it appears the user has not authorized the transaction, the funds of the transaction are returned to the user, or are charged back. Systems and methods provide a way to confirm whether or not a transaction was actually authorized by the user, thereby settling a chargeback dispute for a previously executed transaction. The method comprises receiving the dispute regarding the transaction including associated transaction data, and retrieving a digital signature associated with the transaction data, the digital signature computed by signing the transaction data. The digital signature is then verified using a public key, wherein the public key corresponds to a private key stored on a mobile device. It is then determined whether or not the transaction is fraudulent based on a verification result of the digital signature.


Patent
SALt Inc | Date: 2015-06-23

Compositions for adhering seasonings or flavorings on food substrates, a method for making the compositions, and a method for applying the composition to a food substrate are described. The food substrate may be any shelf-stable food known in the art such as crackers, chips, pretzels, crispy bread products, popcorn, or nuts. The seasoning or flavoring may be salts, herbs spices, or solid flavorants that might complement the food substrate.The compositions are free flowing.


Patent
SALt Inc | Date: 2015-08-12

Ice melting compositions, methods for manufacturing ice melting compositions, and methods for melting ice are disclosed. The ice melting compositions can include a coarse deicing particle nucleus and a fine deicing particle coating substantially surrounding the coarse deicing particle nucleus. The fine particle coating can be attached or bonded to the coarse particle nucleus with a binder. The coarse particle nucleus and the fine particle coating can have a variety of particle sizes.


Patent
SALt Inc | Date: 2013-12-05

A method for making a chloride based mineral food salt that contains sodium, potassium and magnesium comprises combining a carnallite-containing concentrated solution and a potassium chloride in an amount that corresponds to the desired potassium content in the final product. Sodium chloride is added a calculated amount to the formed salt mass for absorbing water, and the product is dried.


The present systems and methods provide for secured communication between a mobile device and a server/gateway. The systems and methods can be used, for example, as a way to confirm whether or not a transaction was actually authorized by the user, thereby settling a chargeback dispute for a previously executed transaction. The method comprises receiving the dispute regarding the transaction including associated transaction data, and retrieving a digital signature associated with the transaction data, the digital signature computed by signing the transaction data. The digital signature is then verified using a public key, wherein the public key corresponds to a private key stored on a mobile device. It is then determined whether or not the transaction is fraudulent based on a verification result of the digital signature.


Patent
SALt Inc | Date: 2014-04-10

The invention provides a multi-component homogenous co-crystallized low sodium salt product for food and pharmaceutical use. The salt product of the invention is essentially segregation-free, has low hygroscopicity and is free-flowing. It has good microbial depression properties and good taste. It supplies the functionality of salt (NaCl) in processed foods and it also maintains the microbial safety, nutritional value and taste. The salt product of the invention includes an alkaline and alkaline earth metal chloride component and an ammonium chloride component. An alkaline metal is potassium (K), and optionally also sodium (Na). An alkaline earth metal is Magnesium (Mg) or Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) having the sum of the molar ratios 1. The invention provides also a process to produce the salt products of the invention.


Systems and methods are provided for facilitating contactless payment using cloud-based wallet containing payment credentials (e.g. Visa, Mastercard, American Express) using a near field communication (NFC)-capable device and payment gateway servers. A user can use their existing payment card, herein referred to as a funding card, for contactless payments. A second payment card, herein referred to as a virtual card, is generated. The virtual card is associated with the funding card on a payment gateway server. The virtual card is used on a NFC-enabled mobile device. When a payment is initiated, the virtual card data is sent through the NFC system from a point of sale terminal. This information is sent to the payment gateway server, which retrieves the funding card to make the payment. The funding card, not the virtual card, is used to transfer the money to make payment.

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