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There are now many recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) products and delivery devices available for rhGH therapy. Not all products are approved to treat both children and adults, and they vary with respect to indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Dosing of rhGH is based on weight, and a higher dose (per kg) is recommended in children than adults. This approximates the normal difference in growth hormone (GH) secretion between these 2 patient populations. Patient adherence to treatment is influenced by a number of factors, and patient inclusion in treatment decisions, such as the choice of delivery device, appears to be important. Unmet expectations are a key issue for many patients and families who decide to discontinue treatment. Counseling patients and families about predicted adult height with rhGH therapy should be based on realistic expectations. Managed care organizations face several challenges in providing rhGH therapy, including deciding who is most likely to benefit from treatment and when to discontinue treatment if the benefits appear to level off. Source

Ogilvie J.W.,SALt Inc
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics | Year: 2011

Case-control genome-wide association studies using a large, geographically diverse data base has been used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms that have prognostic utility in predicting progression of mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in White patients. The calculated risk of progression score allows stratification of patients that can make medical care evidence based, less costly, and more efficient. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Interstitial cystitis (IC), often referred to in combination with painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder. Current therapies primarily focus on replenishing urothelial glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer using GAG analogs and managing pain with supportive therapies. However, the elusive etiology of IC and the lack of animal models to study the disease have been major hurdles developing more effective therapeutics. Previously, we showed an increased urinary concentration of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in spina bifida patients and used LL-37 to develop a mouse model of cystitis that mimics important clinical findings of IC. Here we investigate (1) the molecular mechanism of LL-37 induced cystitis in cultured human urothelial cells and in mice, (2) the protective effects of GM-0111, a modified GAG, within the context of this mechanism, (3) the physiological and molecular markers that correlate with the severity of the inflammation, and (4) the protective effects of several GAGs using these biomarkers in our LL-37 induced cystitis model. We find that LL-37 quickly induces release of ATP and apoptosis in the urothelium. These changes can be inhibited by a chemically-modified GAG, GM-0111. Furthermore, we also find that GAG analogs provide varying degrees of protection against LL-37 challenge in mice. These findings suggest that GM-0111 and possibly GAG molecules prevent the development of cystitis by blocking the apoptosis and the concurrent release of ATP from the urothelium. Source

Moffatt S.,SALt Inc
Building Research and Information | Year: 2014

How the notion of time is conceptualized can directly influence the planning, design, operation and management of cities. Resilience can be understood as an innovation in timing because it changes how people consider, value and act upon the future. Time concepts are part of a deep-rooted culturally specific sociological paradigm, and are central to society's identity and world view. To understand the scope for changing timing paradigms, an exploration is made into the historical interaction between time concepts, economic systems and built environments. Consideration is given to what kind of changes are most needed in timing, especially in light of the accelerating time preferences that can undermine long-term planning and inhibit serious discussion about the future. A new urban-based timing protocol is presented that integrates the scenario planning process by extending time horizons of the past and future, and by combining backcasting and forecasting. The new approach creates an integrated system of timing. Although many institutional barriers may frustrate adoption efforts, a number of positive opportunities are identified. These include the potential for new city-based networks to collaborate around the development and adoption of more appropriate timing tools, with support from national and international funding agencies. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

SALt Inc | Date: 2013-12-05

A method for making a chloride based mineral food salt that contains sodium, potassium and magnesium comprises combining a carnallite-containing concentrated solution and a potassium chloride in an amount that corresponds to the desired potassium content in the final product. Sodium chloride is added a calculated amount to the formed salt mass for absorbing water, and the product is dried.

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