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Interstitial cystitis (IC), often referred to in combination with painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder. Current therapies primarily focus on replenishing urothelial glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer using GAG analogs and managing pain with supportive therapies. However, the elusive etiology of IC and the lack of animal models to study the disease have been major hurdles developing more effective therapeutics. Previously, we showed an increased urinary concentration of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in spina bifida patients and used LL-37 to develop a mouse model of cystitis that mimics important clinical findings of IC. Here we investigate (1) the molecular mechanism of LL-37 induced cystitis in cultured human urothelial cells and in mice, (2) the protective effects of GM-0111, a modified GAG, within the context of this mechanism, (3) the physiological and molecular markers that correlate with the severity of the inflammation, and (4) the protective effects of several GAGs using these biomarkers in our LL-37 induced cystitis model. We find that LL-37 quickly induces release of ATP and apoptosis in the urothelium. These changes can be inhibited by a chemically-modified GAG, GM-0111. Furthermore, we also find that GAG analogs provide varying degrees of protection against LL-37 challenge in mice. These findings suggest that GM-0111 and possibly GAG molecules prevent the development of cystitis by blocking the apoptosis and the concurrent release of ATP from the urothelium. Source

SALt Inc | Date: 2013-12-05

A method for making a chloride based mineral food salt that contains sodium, potassium and magnesium comprises combining a carnallite-containing concentrated solution and a potassium chloride in an amount that corresponds to the desired potassium content in the final product. Sodium chloride is added a calculated amount to the formed salt mass for absorbing water, and the product is dried.

A user may claim to have not made or allowed a transaction and that the transaction was made in error. Where it appears the user has not authorized the transaction, the funds of the transaction are returned to the user, or are charged back. Systems and methods provide a way to confirm whether or not a transaction was actually authorized by the user, thereby settling a chargeback dispute for a previously executed transaction. The method comprises receiving the dispute regarding the transaction including associated transaction data, and retrieving a digital signature associated with the transaction data, the digital signature computed by signing the transaction data. The digital signature is then verified using a public key, wherein the public key corresponds to a private key stored on a mobile device. It is then determined whether or not the transaction is fraudulent based on a verification result of the digital signature.

SALt Inc | Date: 2015-08-12

Ice melting compositions, methods for manufacturing ice melting compositions, and methods for melting ice are disclosed. The ice melting compositions can include a coarse deicing particle nucleus and a fine deicing particle coating substantially surrounding the coarse deicing particle nucleus. The fine particle coating can be attached or bonded to the coarse particle nucleus with a binder. The coarse particle nucleus and the fine particle coating can have a variety of particle sizes.

Improved biodegradable and bioabsorbable BAB-block copolymers exhibiting reverse thermal gellation properties, and aqueous polymer compositions including the BAB-block copolymers, are provided. Methods of making the improved BAB-block copolymers and compositions including the same are also provided.

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