Salpetriere Hospital

Paris, France

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Paris, France
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News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New Rochelle, NY, May 15, 2017- Novel therapeutic approaches and advances in the treatment of uveitis, a sight-threatening inflammation of the eye caused by infection or an autoimmune response, are presented in a special issue of Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The series of articles on uveitis are part of a Special Festschrift issue dedicated to Dr. Robert "Bob" Nussenblatt, a leader in ocular immunology, which is available free on the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website until June 7, 2017. Guest Editors Chi-Chao Chan, MD, H. Nida Sen, MD, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and Khalid F. Tabbara, MD, The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have organized an outstanding group of authors from leading institutions worldwide to contribute original research articles and share their insights and perspectives on this rapidly evolving therapeutic area. In the article entitled "Cyclosporine: A Historical Perspective on Its Role in the Treatment of Noninfectious Uveitis," Wendy Smith, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, examines the many years of comprehensive basic, animal, and clinical research that contributed to the development and refinement of successful therapeutic protocols using cyclosporine to treat autoimmune uveitis. Joelle Antoun, Lia Judice Relvas, and coauthors from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, present a study that explored the effects of "Topical Ganciclovir in Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis ." In this article, the researchers report the results of using topical ganciclovir 0.15% gel to treat patients with inflammation of the middle layer of the eye caused by cytomegalovirus infection, demonstrating the ability to preserve vision over time and prevent recurrences, though with glaucoma as a frequent and severe complication. In "Regulatory T Cell Therapy for Uveitis: A New Promising Challenge," Arnaud Foussat, Bahram Bodaghi and coauthors from Txcell (Sophia-Antipolis), UPMC University of Paris, and Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France, describe the advances being made in developing a new, cell therapy-based, personalized medicine approach for treating autoimmune uveitis. This novel strategy makes use of immune cells called regulatory T lymphocytes, or Treg cells, to induce immune tolerance and regulate immune responses that may mistakenly target the body's own cells. "This special issue brings together an amazing collection of reviews and original articles on uveitis to commemorate the brilliant career and scientific contributions of Bob Nussenblatt," says Editor-in-Chief W. Daniel Stamer, PhD, Joseph A. C. Wadsworth Professor of Ophthalmology and Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published ten times a year online with open access options and in print. It is the only multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal providing basic and clinical research that focuses on biopharmaceuticals that have the potential to prevent, treat, and/or diagnose ocular diseases and disorders. The Journal delivers the latest discoveries in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics is the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies and Population Health Management. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website


-- Novel therapeutic approaches and advances in the treatment of uveitis, a sight-threatening inflammation of the eye caused by infection or an autoimmune response, are presented in a special issue of Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The series of articles on uveitis are part of a Special Festschrift issue dedicated to Dr. Robert "Bob" Nussenblatt, a leader in ocular immunology, which is available free on the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (http://online.liebertpub.com/toc/jop/33/4)website until June 7, 2017.Guest Editors Chi-Chao Chan, MD, H. Nida Sen, MD, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and Khalid F. Tabbara, MD, The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have organized an outstanding group of authors from leading institutions worldwide to contribute original research articles and share their insights and perspectives on this rapidly evolving therapeutic area.In the article entitled "Cyclosporine:A Historical Perspective on Its Role in the Treatment of Noninfectious Uveitis ( http://online.liebertpub.com/ doi/full/10.1089/ jop.2016.0155 )," Wendy Smith, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, examines the many years of comprehensive basic, animal, and clinical research that contributed to the development and refinement of successful therapeutic protocols using cyclosporine to treat autoimmune uveitis.Joelle Antoun, Lia Judice Relvas, and coauthors from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, present a study that explored the effects of "Topical Ganciclovir in Cytomegalovirus Anterior Uveitis ( http://online.liebertpub.com/ doi/full/10.1089/ jop.2016.0138 )." In this article, the researchers report the results of using topical ganciclovir 0.15% gel to treat patients with inflammation of the middle layer of the eye caused by cytomegalovirus infection, demonstrating the ability to preserve vision over time and prevent recurrences, though with glaucoma as a frequent and severe complication.In "Regulatory T Cell Therapy for Uveitis: A New Promising Challenge (http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/jop.2016.0165)," Arnaud Foussat, Bahram Bodaghi and coauthors from Txcell (Sophia-Antipolis), UPMC University of Paris, and Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France, describe the advances being made in developing a new, cell therapy-based, personalized medicine approach for treating autoimmune uveitis. This novel strategy makes use of immune cells called regulatory T lymphocytes, or Treg cells, to induce immune tolerance and regulate immune responses that may mistakenly target the body's own cells."This special issue brings together an amazing collection of reviews and original articles on uveitis to commemorate the brilliant career and scientific contributions of Bob Nussenblatt,"says Editor-in-Chief W. Daniel Stamer, PhD, Joseph A. C. Wadsworth Professor of Ophthalmology and Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC.About the JournalJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (http://www.liebertpub.com/jop) is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published ten times a year online with open access options and in print. It is the only multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal providing basic and clinical research that focuses on biopharmaceuticals that have the potential to prevent, treat, and/or diagnose ocular diseases and disorders. The Journal delivers the latest discoveries in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders. Tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics website. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeuticsis the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (http://www.aopt.org/)About the PublisherMary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (http://www.liebertpub.com/)is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies and Population Health Management. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.


Bartolomeo P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bartolomeo P.,Salpetriere Hospital | Thiebaut de Schotten M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Thiebaut de Schotten M.,Salpetriere Hospital
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2016

Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery. Hence, future research exploring longitudinal changes in patients with brain damage may unveil potential biomarkers underlying functional recovery. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Vesperini V.,Montpellier University | Lukas C.,Montpellier University | Fautrel B.,Salpetriere Hospital | Le Loet X.,Bois Guillaume Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2013

Objective. To investigate the initial response to treatment and risk of radiographic disease progression in current smokers (S), ex-smokers (EX), and nonsmokers (NS) in a prospective early arthritis cohort and to analyze the influence of smoking cessation on arthritis outcome. Methods. The ESPOIR cohort is a prospective cohort study monitoring clinical, biologic, and radiographic data for patients with inflammatory arthritis lasting 6 weeks to 6 months. We examined the influence of smoking status on disease presentation (baseline characteristics) and therapeutic response at 1 year. Risk of structural progression at 12 months, defined as change in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score ≥1, was analyzed by multivariate regression adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex, joint erosion at inclusion, educational level, positivity for rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 antibodies, and shared HLA-DRB1 epitope). Results. A total of 813 patients were included; 641 (79%) fulfilled the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At inclusion, 138 (21.5%) were S patients, 168 (26.2%) were EX patients, and 335 (52.3%) were NS patients. Baseline acute-phase indicator values were significantly lower for S patients than EX and NS patients (mean ± SD erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 24.2 ± 18.2 mm/hour versus 33.4 ± 28.0 and 31.4 ± 25.0 [P = 0.02], respectively, and mean ± SD C-reactive protein level was 17.7 ± 28.0 mg/dl versus 28.5 ± 42.5 and 21.4 ± 29.0 [P = 0.01], respectively). Smoking status had no influence on Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, Health Assessment Questionnaire score, EULAR response, or use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic therapy in the first 12 months of followup (P > 0.05). The adjusted risk for structural disease progression was associated with active smokers (odds ratio 0.50 [95% confidence interval 0.27-0.93], P = 0.028). Sixteen patients had stopped smoking at 12 months, with no significant difference in observed outcomes from other patients. Conclusion. In this large prospective cohort of patients with early arthritis, smoking status had no significant effect on disease activity and disability but did reduce 1-year radiographic disease progression. The antiinflammatory role of nicotine may explain the lower systemic inflammation and structural disease progression in current smokers with early RA. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.


Soria J.-C.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Blay J.Y.,Center Leon Berard | Spano J.P.,Salpetriere Hospital | Pivot X.,University Hospital njoz | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

The treatment of certain cancers has been revolutionised in recent years by the introduction of novel drugs designed to target specific molecular factors implicated in tumour growth. Notable examples include trastuzumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 in women with HER2-positive breast cancer; rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumours and sunitinib, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. For regulatory reasons, new molecular targeted agents are first evaluated in advanced and metastatic disease, wherein they prolong survival. However, their most profound impact has been observed in the adjuvant setting, where they may contribute to curative therapy rather than mere palliation. Expansion in the use of molecular targeted therapies will have important cost implications for health care systems. Although expensive, on a monthly basis, molecular targeted therapies may not be more costly than treatments for other major chronic diseases, especially considering the contribution of cancer to the global disease burden, the associated socioeconomic costs and the long-term benefits of therapy. Nevertheless, the use of these agents must be optimised, in part using molecular biomarkers associated with drug response. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Chiarovano E.,University of Paris Descartes | Zamith F.,Salpetriere Hospital | Vidal P.-P.,University of Paris Descartes | de Waele C.,University of Paris Descartes | de Waele C.,Salpetriere Hospital
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

Objective: This study compared the results of ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) tests for healthy subjects with those for patients suffering from vestibular diseases to try to determine the clinical usefulness of combined ocular and cervical STB VEMP testing. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers and 74 patients with unilateral vestibular dysfunction underwent tests for ocular and cervical VEMPs induced by AC 100. dB nHL 500. Hz STB combined with caloric and audiometric tests. Results: In healthy subjects, the mean P13-N23 peak-to-peak amplitude of cervical VEMPs was much larger than the mean n1-p1 peak-to-peak amplitude of ocular VEMPs. In patients, cervical and ocular VEMPs may be dissociated. The peak-to-peak amplitude of both cervical and ocular tests was abnormally in most of patients suffering from vestibular lesions. No correlations were found between VEMPs, the degree of hearing loss and/or of horizontal canalar paresis. Conclusions: Ocular and cervical VEMPs provide complementary information about saccular and utricular otolithic function. Significance: Testing of ocular and cervical VEMPs allows the crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex and ipsilateral sacculo-collic reflex to be determined. These tests can help describe vestibular lesions and assess the effects of treatment and should therefore be used clinically. © 2011.


Vidailhet M.,Salpetriere Hospital
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013

Symptomatic treatment of cerebral palsy (CP) is difficult, with variable beneficial effect. The choice of therapy is guided by the main clinical features (spasticity, dystonia/choreoathetosis), by the experience of experts, and by the results of open-label trials and a few controlled studies. Treatments of spasticity are not discussed in depth here. From open-label trials and a few controlled studies in dystonia/choreoathetosis CP, it appears that treatment should be started at a low dose and increased slowly, and that more beneficial effects are obtained on upper extremity function, face and jaw dystonia and drooling, and in children. L-Baclofen or antiepileptic drugs are rarely effective and poorly tolerated whereas benzodiazepines may be moderately helpful. Local injections of botulinum toxin help to reduce pain and limit the amplitude of some movements (violent neck movements with high risk of symptomatic radiculomyelopathy). In a rare subtype of dystonia-choreathetosis CP with little spasticity and MRI lesions, bilateral pallidal stimulation (GPi) has shown mild to moderate improvement of dystonia (in open-label small series and in one controlled study) with no cognitive or mood adverse effects. Optimal placement of the leads was a major (but not exclusive) factor for good outcome but results cannot be predicted on an individual basis and larger studies are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Khayat D.,Salpetriere Hospital
Cancer | Year: 2012

The costs of cancer care are rising, and spending on expensive innovative anticancer agents is likely to come under scrutiny as health care payers are confronted by the challenge of resource limits in the face of infinite demand. Indirect costs account for the major part of total attributable costs of cancer and are dominated by the cost of mortality in individuals of working age (who therefore do not contribute to economic productivity). Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality, in 2007, it was estimated that cancer accounted for only around 6% of the total health care costs in Europe. It is estimated that cancer drug costs constitute around 12% of total direct cancer costs and 5% of the costs of all drugs. Countries vary in their uptake of novel anticancer agents. However, even in France-a leading nation for the use of these agents-the costs of innovative anticancer drugs accounted for <0.6% of total health care expenditure in 2006. Population-level data suggest that novel therapies have contributed (together with advances in screening and other aspects of care) to improvements in survival from cancer. If this is the case, then the potential reduction in the associated indirect costs could exceed the direct costs associated with the uptake of innovative drug therapies. Further research is required to establish the costs and benefits of novel agents in routine practice. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.


Lubetzki C.,Salpetriere Hospital | Stankoff B.,Salpetriere Hospital
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2014

This review, focused on demyelination in multiple sclerosis, is divided in two parts. The first part addresses the many and not exclusive mechanisms leading to demyelination in the central nervous system. Although the hypothesis that a primary oligodendrocyte or myelin injury induces a secondary immune response in the central nervous system is still a matter of debate, most recent advances underline the influence of a primary immune response against myelin antigen(s), with a diversity of potential targets. Whereas multiple sclerosis was long considered as a T cell-mediated disease, the role of B lymphocytes is now increasingly recognized, and the influence of antibodies on tissue damage actively investigated. The second part of the review describes the axonal consequences of demyelination. Segmental demyelination results in conduction block or slowing of conduction through adaptative responses, notably related to modifications in the distribution of voltage gated sodium channels along the denuded axon. If demyelination persists, these changes, as well as the loss of trophic and metabolic support, will lead to irreversible axonal damage and loss. In this respect, favouring early myelin repair, during a window of time when axonal damage is still reversible, might pave the way for neuroprotection. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Baumann N.,Salpetriere Hospital | Turpin J.-C.,Salpetriere Hospital
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2010

Stress is a word that is used very commonly. It is generally employed to design unpleasant phenomena, although it is related to a function necessary to our life. Stress in itself is not a disease. Stress is not an aggression. It is an adaptative response of our body to any demand. Nothing can be done without stress. Stress gives rise to a mobilization of our body to succeed in a group of activities necessary to individual and social life. It favors our dynamism and creativity. But this aptitude can attain its limits, when the solicitations we receive are above what we are able to perform, both in relation to our mental and physical capabilities. The brain controls the systems involved in stress. The main areas are the prefrontal cortex, the limbic system (which comprises the hippocampus and the amygdala) and the hypothalamus. Relations between the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system are important for the planification of action. The main systems of regulation are the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, the neuro-endocrine system and last but not least the immune system. There is a relation between all our organs and the brain. The genetic aspects and the influences of our past experiences, both during childhood and in adult life, are envisaged. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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