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Ohashi R.,Hokkaido University | Yamaguchi A.,Hokkaido University | Matsuno K.,Hokkaido University | Saito R.,Hokkaido University | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

On the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, mesozooplankton plays an important role in material transfer between primary producers and fisheries resources. The biomass of mesozooplankton in this region is known to vary annually, but little is known about annual changes in community structure and species composition. In the present study, regional and long-term changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods and chaetognaths on the shelf were evaluated based on NORPAC net samples collected during summers of 1994-2009. During the study period, regime shifts occurred from high interannual variability regime (1994-1999) to low interannual variability regime with high temperature (2000-2005), then to a low interannual variability regime with low temperature (2007-2009). A total of 24 calanoid copepod species belonging to 21 genera were identified from samples. Copepod abundance ranged from 150 to 834,486inds.m-2, was greatest on the Middle shelf, and was higher in cold years, than in warm years. Copepod biomass ranged from 0.013 to 150gDMm-2, and was also higher in cold years than in warm years. Based on the results of cluster analysis, the copepod community was divided into six groups (A-F). The regional and interannual distributions of each group were distinct. Interannual changes in abundance of the dominant copepod on the Outer shelf and Middle shelf were highly significant (p<0.0001), and their abundances were negatively correlated with temperature and salinity. Interannual changes in copepod community that occurred between cold and warm years are thought to have been caused by differences in the magnitude and timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom between the two regimes. Abundance and biomass of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans ranged from 30 to 15,180inds.m-2 and from 11 to 1559mgDMm-2, respectively. Chaetognath abundance was significantly correlated with the abundance of the dominant copepods (p<0.0001). Differences in cold and warm years may also affect recruitment of walleye pollock. We conclude that on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, the magnitude and timing of primary production, which is related to climate change, may significantly affect how it is transferred through the food web. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Miyakoshi Y.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Saitoh S.-I.,Hokkaido University
Fisheries Science | Year: 2011

Little is known about the survival rate of wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou. To examine the effects of smolt length and migration timing on the recovery rate of wild masu salmon, we reanalyzed past tagging and recovery data (1993-1994). The tagging study was conducted in the Shokanbetsu River, northern Japan; 863 wild masu salmon smolts were captured, tagged, and released in a downstream site, and a total of 19 fish were recovered in coastal fisheries and in the natal river the following year. The data were analyzed by a logistic regression analysis with recapture as a response variable and tagging date and smolt length as explanatory variables; the tagging date had a significant effect on the recapture rate, whereas the effect of smolt size was not significant. Despite the small number of recaptures, this study indicates that migration timing is a factor affecting the marine survival of wild masu salmon smolts, although this conclusion has been repeatedly documented for other species of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. Source

Kawai H.,Hokkaido University | Nagayama S.,Hokkaido University | Nagayama S.,Japan Aqua Restoration Research Center | Urabe H.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2014

Recent studies have demonstrated that the energetic profitability (net energy intake potential; NEI potential) of a habitat, which is calculated as the gross energy gain from foraging minus the energy expenditure from swimming at a focal point, may be a useful tool for predicting the salmonid biomass. The effectiveness of the NEI potential should be tested in various systems. Even if the NEI potential is validated, its predictive accuracy and transferability could be limited if the cover habitat, which is known to be an important factor for determining salmonid abundance, is not considered. We tested whether the NEI potential is effective for predicting the salmonid biomass even in a stream with abundant cover and whether combining the NEI potential and cover effects can improve the predictability of fish biomass using a generalized linear model. Our results demonstrated that the NEI potential could generally predict the fish biomass (percent deviance explained = 79.9 %), and the model that incorporated both the NEI potential and the cover ratio improved the predictive accuracy (percent deviance explained = 88.5 %). These results suggest that energetic profitability can be an effective indicator for assessing habitat quality and is relatively transferable to other systems. Furthermore, when cover effects are considered, the habitat quality is more accurately represented; thus, combining the energetic profitability and the cover effects might improve the transferability of the assessment across habitats. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Miyakoshi Y.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Nagata M.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Kitada S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Kaeriyama M.,Hokkaido University
Reviews in Fisheries Science | Year: 2013

The hatchery program for chum salmon in Hokkaido, northern Japan, constitutes one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. The hatchery program has been conducted for over 120 years, and returns of chum salmon rapidly increased during the last quarter of the 20th century. Since the 1990s, chum salmon returns to Hokkaido have remained at a historically high level, although different fluctuation trends have been observed among regions within Hokkaido. Although such intensive hatchery programs have been conducted for more than 25 generations, there has been no evidence indicating any decline of genetic diversity. The hatchery program for chum salmon in Hokkaido is successful in increasing commercial catches and will likely be the main management tool in future. However, information on naturally spawning chum salmon in Hokkaido remains scarce. Assessment of naturally spawning populations recently commenced, and it has been revealed that naturally spawning chum salmon populations remain in many rivers in Hokkaido. For future management, monitoring chum salmon of both hatchery and natural origin is important, and a novel strategy that accounts for the enhancement of commercial stocks and the coexistence of hatchery programs and wild populations should be established in Japan. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Miyakoshi Y.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Urabe H.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Saneyoshi H.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | Aoyama T.,Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012

Since the late 20th century, the biomass of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. has increased. Hokkaido, northern Japan, is one of the main areas of chum salmon O. keta production in the North Pacific and intensive hatchery programs support the recent high abundance. However, proper management of naturally spawning populations is necessary to conserve healthy stocks of this species. In 2008, we started a program to assess the naturally spawning chum salmon populations in Hokkaido. Of the total of approximately 1,500 rivers in Hokkaido, 238 rivers with lengths of longer than 8 km (excluding those rivers used for hatchery broodstock collection) were surveyed in 2008 and 2009. The number of non-enhanced rivers found to contain naturally reproducing chum salmon was 59 (31. 4% of surveyed rivers) and 50 (37. 6% of surveyed rivers) rivers in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Including the rivers where hatchery broodstock were collected and rivers shorter than 8 km that contain naturally spawning chum salmon, chum salmon ascended at least 191 and 175 rivers in Hokkaido in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Repeated foot surveys indicated that the run timings of naturally spawning chum salmon may be affected by coastal commercial fisheries. This study showed that naturally spawning chum salmon remain in many rivers in Hokkaido where hatchery programs have been intensively conducted. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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