SalMar Farming AS


SalMar Farming AS

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Broch O.J.,Sintef | Daae R.L.,Sintef | Ellingsen I.H.,Sintef | Nepstad R.,Sintef | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Marine Science | Year: 2017

A spatially explicit coupled hydrodynamic-mass transport model system was used to simulate dispersal of particulate organic matter from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming in central Norway. Model setups of 32 m horizontal resolution were run for periods of up to 650 days for 3 sites of different oceanographic characteristics: one fjord location, one medium-exposed location influenced by fjord water, and one coastal location. Records on feed used for each cage at each location were converted to feces released based on a published mass balance model. The results from the simulations were compared with scores from corresponding mandatory benthic surveys (MOM-B) of the sediment layer beneath the farms. The correspondence between simulated and measured thickness of the sediment layer was good, and improved with the inclusion of resuspension processes. At all sites the distribution of organic matter in the bottom layer was non-homogeneous, with significant temporal variation and transport and settling of matter up to at least 0.5 km away from one of the farms. Our results indicate that the monitoring practice used in Norway until now, with a few sediment grab samples taken mainly within the fish farm, may not adequately determine the areal impacts of all salmon farming operations. The patchy distribution of organic matter and the correspondence between simulation and survey results is attributed to the use of full 3D current fields of a high spatiotemporal resolution and a good model for resuspension processes that some previous model studies have failed to properly account for. © 2017 Broch, Daae, Ellingsen, Nepstad, Bendiksen, Reed and Senneset.

Aunsmo A.,SalMar Farming AS | Valle P.S.,Molde University College | Bruheim T.,National Veterinary Institute
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

An economic model for estimating the direct costs of disease in industrial aquaculture was developed to include the following areas: biological losses, extraordinary costs, costs of treatment, costs of prevention and insurance pay-out. Direct costs of a pancreas disease (PD) outbreak in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon were estimated in the model, using probability distributions for the biological losses and expenditures associated with the disease. The biological effects of PD on mortality, growth, feed conversion and carcass quality and their correlations, together with costs of prevention were established using elicited data from an expert panel, and combined with basal losses in a control model. Extraordinary costs and costs associated with treatment were collected through a questionnaire sent to staff managing disease outbreaks. Norwegian national statistics for 2007 were used for prices and production costs in the model. Direct costs associated with a PD-outbreak in a site stocked with 500,000 smolts (vs. a similar site without the disease) were estimated to NOK (Norwegian kroner) 14.4 million (5% and 95% percentile: 10.5 and 17.8) (NOK = €0.12 or $0.17 for 2007). Production was reduced to 70% (5% and 95% percentile: 57% and 81%) saleable biomass, and at an increased production cost of NOK 6.0 per kg (5% and 95% percentile: 3.5 and 8.7). © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lerfall Jo.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bendiksen E.T.,SalMar Farming AS | Olsen J.V.,SalMar Organic AS | Morrice D.,EWOS Ltd. | Osterlie M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to investigate retention of pigments and composition of fatty acids (FA) in farmed organic- and conventional Atlantic salmon fed commercial feed adapted to organic and conventional salmon farming, respectively. Moreover, stability of pigments, FAs and color was investigated throughout the fillet shelf life. No significant differences were observed in fish weight between organic- and conventional salmon (5.44 and 5.40. kg, respectively). However, the average condition factor (Cf) was significantly lower in organic (1.00) as compared to conventional salmon (1.15). The fillet characteristics of the organic salmon investigated were; similar total content of muscle carotenoids, lower content of astaxanthin, more diverse composition of muscle carotenoids, higher contents of SFAs and PUFAs, lower contents of MUFAs and significantly darker appearance as compared to a conventional salmon. Only small differences were however found regarding stability of carotenoids, Vitamin E, FAs and color during 22. day ice storage. Hence, the pigment stability for both groups was regarded as good. Statement of relevance: The paper compare today's production of organic- versus conventional farmed Atlantic salmon.The paper investigates the retention and stability of carotenoids from the pigment source Panaferd-AX in Atlantic salmon and in salmon flesh during ice storage. The paper investigates the effects of different carotenoid compositions and fatty acid profiles on the flesh color throughout the fillet shelf life. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Lerfall J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bendiksen E.A.,SalMar Farming AS | Olsen J.V.,SalMar Organic AS | Osterlie M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dry salting, cold smoking and 14 days refrigerated storage at 4 °C on the stability of carotenoids, color and fatty acids in commercially reared organic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). As reference, conventionally reared Atlantic salmon was used. Pigment sources in feeds for the organic and conventional salmon were Panaferd-AX® (PAN) and Carophyll Pink® (CP), respectively. The dry salting process was found to be the main cause for losses of carotenoids throughout salting, smoking and storage, whereas no differences were found in stability of the different flesh carotenoids. The diverse composition of flesh carotenoids in organic salmon seems however to have minor influence on the color of the cold smoked product. Colorimetric characteristics of the fillet surface and liquid loss during storage of cold smoke fillets were found to be mostly affected by the fatty acid composition of the flesh which differed between the organic and conventional raw material. Moreover, dry salting and cold smoking were found to alter colorimetric differences between raw organically and conventionally reared salmon, resulting in an equal colorimetric perception of cold smoked organic and conventional salmon fillets after 14 days refrigerated vacuum storage. Statement of relevance: •This paper investigates the stability of carotenoids, color and fatty acids throughout processing and storage of cold smoked organic farmed Atlantic salmon.•This paper focuses on the diversity of carotenoids presented in organic salmon fed a feed containing Panaferd-AX and how these carotenoids affect the color of the smoked product.•This paper investigates the suitability of the presented organic salmon as raw material for the smoking industry. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Stormoen M.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Skjerve E.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Aunsmo A.,Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics | Aunsmo A.,SalMar Farming AS
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to model sea lice levels and the effect on reproduction by a stochastic simulation model and to evaluate the uncertainty of lice estimates based upon counts. Two empirical data sets were examined to parameterize the models. An overall fit of the data to the Poisson distribution was found and thus was used as the base of the stochastic models. In the model, salmon lice reproduction is not linear with the number of adult females and at low lice loads a smaller proportion of the adult female lice will reproduce. Depending on the variance structure, it was estimated that between 40% and 60% of the adult female lice will reproduce at an abundance of 0.5 adult females per fish. Lice counts, especially when examining few fish at low lice loads, are uncertain and at a true abundance of 0.1 one may count between 0 and 5 lice when examining 10 fish. Understanding the dynamics of sea lice reproduction is a key factor in the development of sustainable control strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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