Salk Institute for Biological Studies

San Diego, CA, United States

Salk Institute for Biological Studies

San Diego, CA, United States

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent, non-profit, scientific research institute located in La Jolla, California. It was founded in 1960 by Jonas Salk, the developer of the polio vaccine; among the founding consultants were Jacob Bronowski and Francis Crick. Building did not start until spring of 1962. The institute consistently ranks among the top institutions in the US in terms of research output and quality in the life science. In 2004, the Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Salk as the world's top biomedicine research institute, and in 2009 it was ranked number one globally by ScienceWatch in the neuroscience and behavior areas.The institute employs 850 researchers in 60 research groups and focuses its research in three areas: Molecular Biology and Genetics; Neuroscience; and Plant Biology. Research topics include cancer, diabetes, birth defects, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, AIDS, and the neurobiology of American Sign Language. The March of Dimes provided the initial funding and continues to support the institute. Current research is funded by a variety of organizations, such as the NIH, the HHMI and private organizations such as Paris-based Ipsen and the Waitt Family Foundation. In addition, the internally administered Innovation Grants Program encourages cutting-edge high-risk research. The institute appointed genome biologist Eric Lander and stem cell biologist Irving Weissman as non-resident fellows in November 2009.The campus was designed by Louis Kahn. Salk had sought to make a beautiful campus in order to draw the best researchers in the world. Salk and Kahn having both descended from Russian Jewish parents that had immigrated to the United States had a deeper connection than just mere partners on an architectural project. The results of their connection is seen in the design that resulted from their collaboration. The original buildings of the Salk Institute were designated as a historical landmark in 1991. The entire 27-acre site was deemed eligible by the California Historical Resources Commission in 2006 for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Wikipedia.

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Patent
Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Date: 2017-01-18

Novel compounds having a formula embodiments of a method of making the same, and of a composition comprising them are disclosed herein. Also disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in a subject, comprising administering to a subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in the subject. Additionally disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing inflammation in an intestinal region of a subject, comprising administering to the subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and thereby treating or preventing inflammation in the intestinal region of the subject.


Patent
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, The Regents Of The University Of California and Labrys Biologics | Date: 2017-03-22

The disclosure features compositions and methods for treating a metabolic disorder associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), including diabetes, conditions associated with inhibition of insulin secretion, or for increasing longevity. Specifically, the methods comprise administering to a subject suffering a metabolic disorder a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-CGRP antagonist antibody.


Patent
Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research and Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Date: 2017-04-12

Provided herein is the use of compounds that modulate the activity of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (lAPs), alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents, in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Described herein is the use of IAP antagonists in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a mammal, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents used in HIV therapy. In one aspect, provided herein is a method of treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in an individual in need thereof comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of at least one inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) antagonist.


Patent
Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Date: 2017-01-18

Novel FXR agonists are disclosed, embodiments of a method of making the same, and of a composition comprising them are disclosed herein. Also disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in a subject, comprising administering to a subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and treating or preventing a metabolic disorder in the subject. Additionally disclosed are embodiments of a method of treating or preventing inflammation in an intestinal region of a subject, comprising administering to the subject (e.g., via the gastrointestinal tract) a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the disclosed compounds, thereby activating FXR receptors in the intestines, and thereby treating or preventing inflammation in the intestinal region of the subject.


Patent
Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Date: 2017-02-01

The invention features compositions comprising in vitro generated beta cells capable of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, methods of inducing beta cell maturation from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta-like cells, and methods of using in vitro generated beta cells for treatment of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or a related disorder.


Gage F.H.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Temple S.,Neural Stem Cell Institute
Neuron | Year: 2013

One of the landmark events of the past 25 years in neuroscience research was the establishment of neural stem cells (NSCs) as a life-long source of neurons and glia, a concept that shattered the dogma that the nervous system lacked regenerative power. Stem cells afford the plasticity to generate, repair, and change nervous system function. Combined with reprogramming technology, human somatic cell-derived NSCs and their progeny can model neurological diseases with improved accuracy. As technology advances, we anticipate further important discoveries and novel therapies based on the knowledge and application of these powerful cells.


Sharpee T.O.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Neuron | Year: 2014

How many types of neurons are there in the brain? This basic neuroscience question remains unsettled despite many decades of research. Classification schemes have been proposed based on anatomical, electrophysiological, or molecular properties. However, different schemes do not always agree with each other. This raises the question of whether one can classify neurons based on their function directly. For example, among sensory neurons, can a classification scheme be devised that is based on their role in encoding sensory stimuli? Here, theoretical arguments are outlined for how this can be achieved using information theory by looking at optimal numbers of cell types and paying attention to two key properties: correlations between inputs and noise in neural responses. This theoretical framework could help to map the hierarchical tree relating different neuronal classes within and across species. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Allen N.J.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Neuronal synapse formation and maturation in the developing brain is a complex multi-step process, and it is now clear that glial cells, in particular astrocytes, are key regulators of neuronal synaptogenesis. This article reviews the progress made in the past few years in identifying molecular mechanisms that glial cells use to regulate neuronal synaptogenesis. The focus is on novel glial molecules that induce synapse formation, inhibit synapse formation, or control synaptic levels of glutamate receptors. A role for glial cells in the pathology of neurodevelopmental disorders is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Albright T.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Neuron | Year: 2012

Perception is influenced both by the immediate pattern of sensory inputs and by memories acquired through prior experiences with the world. Throughout much of its illustrious history, however, study of the cellular basis of perception has focused on neuronal structures and events that underlie the detection and discrimination of sensory stimuli. Relatively little attention has been paid to the means by which memories interact with incoming sensory signals. Building upon recent neurophysiological/behavioral studies of the cortical substrates of visual associative memory, I propose a specific functional process by which stored information about the world supplements sensory inputs to yield neuronal signals that can account for visual perceptual experience. This perspective represents a significant shift in the way we think about the cellular bases of perception. Albright reviews the question of how memory and sensory inputs interact to form the basis of visual perceptual experience. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Allen N.J.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Annual review of cell and developmental biology | Year: 2014

Astrocytes regulate multiple aspects of neuronal and synaptic function from development through to adulthood. Instead of addressing each function independently, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the different ways astrocytes modulate neuronal synaptic function throughout life, with a particular focus on recent findings in each area. It includes the emerging functions of astrocytes, such as a role in synapse formation, as well as more established roles, including the uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters. This broad approach covers the many ways astrocytes and neurons constantly interact to maintain the correct functioning of the brain. It is important to consider all of these diverse functions of astrocytes when investigating how astrocyte-neuron interactions regulate synaptic behavior to appreciate the complexity of these ongoing interactions.

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