News Article | October 30, 2016
-- The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is determined to build a thriving, and more importantly, a knowledge based economy. Vision 2030 is providing the momentum to propel the nation towards a new era of prosperity and the government is therefore working side-by-side with the private sector in fields such as education and training, infrastructure and healthcare.The Kingdom's youth are its "significant assets" and therefore much is being invested together with the private sector to develop skills and create employment opportunities. This includes increased employment opportunities for females. Women make up more than half of Saudi university graduates and are a largely untapped talent pool. In addition, more than half of the Saudi population is under the age of 25, a trend on which the Saudi government is capitalizing.Early childhood development is especially relevant when one considers the extent to which Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) play a role in the career prospects of young people. To this end, Siemens partnered with Saudi Aramco to jointly distribute over 3,000 science kits across the Kingdom, thereby promoting science education among school children. The "Discovery Box" initiative targeted public schools with positive feedback from teachers, parents and learners. The "Discovery Boxes" contained materials for 22 experiments in the fields of energy, environmental science and healthcare.Arja Talakar, CEO of Siemens Saudi Arabia says, "The National Transformation Program 2020 aims to increase the number of young Saudi citizens enrolled in vocational training programs from 104,000 to 950,000. This provides an outstanding opportunity for the private sector to strategically partner with the government. Siemens therefore works together with key stakeholders to train and create employment opportunities for Saudi citizens."Vision 2030 aims to realize a more competitive and skilled Saudi labor force. Vocational training capacity is already expanding and scholarships are planned in fields that address the Kingdom's priorities. From a baseline of 7%, the government is targeting 12.5% of high school graduates to be in vocational training programs by 2020. A recent feasibility study confirmed a widening skills gap equivalent to 65,000 full-time skilled workers in the Kingdom's energy sector over the next two decades. This prompted the establishment of a National Power Academy (NPA) to substantially address the skills requirements across the energy value chain. Siemens is a founding stakeholder of the NPA and is therefore working closely with Saudi Aramco, Saudi Electricity Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation to equip the NPA with state-of-the-art technologies, hardware and software applications, as well as tried and tested curricula. This will include training and the creation of employment opportunities in line with the company's requirements.The continuous expansion of Siemens' local footprint in manufacturing, innovation, education and training includes the milestone of building the Siemens Dammam Energy Hub (SDEH), Saudi Arabia's first gas turbine plant. The SDEH provides true knowledge transfer to young Saudi nationals and is positioned to build even more local capabilities in the energy market. Siemens previously trained and now employs the first generation of Saudi gas turbine experts at the SDEH. These local experts built the first "Made in KSA" gas turbine earlier this year and they will shape the future of the industry.The collaboration between universities and the private sector provides excellent opportunities to inspire new ways of learning that maximize educational experiences and produce well-rounded, competent and articulate graduates. Siemens' partnership with Effat University, the first to provide an engineering curriculum for women in the Kingdom, outlines talent sourcing, research, curriculum development and guest lecturing as key components of a mutually beneficial collaboration. Around 100 students participated in two "Siemens Day" events on campus, which included innovation workshops and lectures. The collaboration is bearing its first fruits since several interns have already been sourced with a developing talent pipeline in the months ahead. In addition, the company is working with Effat University to develop a new Energy Engineering academic curriculum.Waleed Hefni, Head of Human Resources at Siemens Saudi Arabia, concludes: "Siemens thinks and acts in the interests of future generations because responsible conduct is the only way to balance long-term growth with the aspirations of Saudi Arabia. The development of our youth is especially important in achieving the goals of Vision 2030 and further strengthening the Kingdom's position as a major global player."Together with its local shareholder and partner, E.A. Juffali & Bros, the company is leveraging its collective strength in support of Vision 2030 because ultimately, what is important to Saudi Arabia, matters to Siemens.
Hamed O.A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016
A comprehensive thermo-economic study based on the exergy accounting method is conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined gas/steam power generation system integrated with a hybrid multistage flash (MSF)/sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants. The plant consists of five combined power generation cycles. Each cycle incorporates, two gas turbines (GT), two heat recovery steam generators, and one steam turbine. The total power generated is 2,645.5 MW. The combined power generation cycles are integrated with a hybrid MSF/SWRO desalination plant with a total water production of 1,000,000 m3/d, of which 70% is produced by MSF and 30% by SWRO. The exergy accounting study revealed that the heat rate of the combined gas/steam power cycle is 6,388.94 kJ/kWh, corresponding to an overall thermal efficiency of 56.34%. On the other hand, the water specific fuel energy consumption of the hybrid SWRO/MSF plant is 33.74 kWh/m3. The suggested exergy cost accounting method shows the water unit production cost varying from $0.8258/m3 to $2.259/m3 and the per unit electricity generation cost varying from $0.02266/kWh to $0.0966/kWh, as the oil price is increased from $6/bbl to $72/bbl, respectively. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Tribollet B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Kittel J.,French Institute of Petroleum |
Meroufel A.,French Institute of Petroleum |
Meroufel A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
And 3 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014
In H2S containing solutions, the reduction of protons with a buffer effect contributing to the transport of protons at the steel surface, is not sufficient to explain the cathodic polarization curves obtained on 316L stainless steel. An additional electrochemical reaction was observed and was attributed to a direct H2S reduction. A numerical model is presented with these hypotheses and a good agreement is found with the experimental data presented in a previous paper. With this model it is also possible to present the concentration profiles of the different species involved in the cathodic process. ©2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kouta A.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals |
Al-Sulaiman F.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals |
Atif M.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals |
Marshad S.B.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2016
In this study, performance and cost analyses are conducted for a solar power tower integrated with supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycles for power production and a multiple effect evaporation with a thermal vapor compression (MEE-TVC) desalination system for water production. The study is performed for two configurations based on two different supercritical cycles: the regeneration and recompression sCO2 Brayton cycles. A two-tank molten salt storage is utilized to ensure a uniform operation throughout the day. From the entropy analysis, it was shown that the solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations, reaching almost 80% from the total entropy generation, followed by the MEE-TVC desalination system, and the sCO2 power cycle. The entropy generation in the two-tank thermal storage is negligible, around 0.3% from the total generation. In the MEE-TVC system the highest contributing component is the steam jet ejector, which is varying between 50% and 60% for different number of effects. The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases as the fraction of the input heat to the desalination system decreases; while the specific entropy generation of the sCO2 cycle remains constant. The cost analysis performed for different regions in Saudi Arabia and the findings reveal that the regions characterized by the highest average solar irradiation throughout the year have the lowest LCOE and LCOW values. The region achieving the lowest cost is Yanbu, followed by Khabt Al-Ghusn in the second place, and the rest are as follows, Jabal Al-Rughamah, Jizan, Al-Khafji, and Dhahran. The LCOE of Yanbu at a fraction of 0.5 for the regeneration and recompression solar cogeneration cycles are 0.0915 $/kW h and 0.0826 $/kW h, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ihm S.,Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction |
Al-Najdi O.Y.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Hamed O.A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Jun G.,Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction |
Chung H.,Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction
Desalination | Year: 2016
Energy cost comparison between MSF, MED and SWRO has been conducted. In order to investigate energy consumption differences when combined with a simple cycle Oil-Fired Power Plant (OFPP) or a Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP), Yanbu Ph.3 and Ras Al-Khair Ph.1 power and water cogeneration projects are considered as practical heat and mass balance references. With the net power production of 2708.5 MW and the total water production of 124.54 MIGD, the fuel energy differences due to desalination are compared. By calculating the fuel energy requirement for desalination from a cogeneration cycle itself, some controversial issues including evaluating electricity and steam could be avoided. Results show that the required fuel energies for desalination are less by 11–49% when combined with CCPP than with OFPP, owing to the higher efficiency of the combined cycle. Thermal desalination benefits more greatly from the combined cycle's higher efficiency due to a lowered steam value. While SWRO shows a better fuel energy efficiency for most of the studied regime, high Performance Ratio (PR) MEDs combined with CCPP could be a similar energy efficient option if PR is 16.5–19.3, compared to SWRO with CCPP. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Farooque A.M.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Alanazi M.Z.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015
Abstract: NF membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the smooth implementation of this technology. Hence, attempts were made to identify the best NF membranes which can handle fouling and also are capable of maintaining its specific ion rejection properties, which are usually affected by fouling, chemical cleaning, and long-term operation. In this study, low fouling NF membranes were used in a 2:1 configuration, the product of which was used as feed to a SWRO unit as well as make-up to MED unit at different combinations. Moreover, SWRO reject was also used as make-up to MED unit. NF and SWRO operations conditions were mainly directed by the requirement of MED unit. NF unit was most of the time operated at a recovery of 70% and SWRO unit which was fed by the NF product was operated mostly at a recovery of about 48%. NF unit received pretreated seawater which was taken from an open intake located at Gulf Seawater. The pretreatment includes disinfection by chlorine, coagulation using FeCl3, and antiscalant dosing, where feed water passes through two dual media filters arranged in series. NF membranes were operated at an average flux of 21 LMH at the normal recovery of 70%. A total of four chemical cleanings were only performed during the period of 3 years in operation. A total of only seven NF membranes were only replaced during the test period which amounts to an average of 13% annual membrane replacement rate which is quite acceptable in membrane industries. Some of the chemical cleaning and membrane replacement could have been avoided if problem with isobaric ERD would not have happened. End membrane elements were replaced on two occasions due to heavy CaSO4 scale, which occurred due to failure of isobaric ERD system. NF unit was most of the time operated at feed pressure of <15 bar and it increased up to 25 bar only during the occurrence of scaling. NF product quality was maintained constant in the narrow range of TDS between 36,600 and 37,600 ppm from a feed TDS of about 45,000 ppm despite large variation in feed temperature. Even the concentrations of scale-forming divalent ions were in the narrow range. These properties of NF membrane were better and much different from that was used at Ummlujj and resulted in steady performance of SWRO unit which received NF product as feed. SWRO membranes which received NF product as feed was mostly operated at recovery of 48% with an average flux of 13.5 LMH. The performance of SWRO membranes was excellent as expected due to very clean feed water as well as moderate flux operation. During the three years period no chemical cleaning and membrane replacement were carried out due to its excellent performance. The product conductivity was mostly below 400 μS/cm despite large seasonal variation in feed water temperature, which ranged between 17 and 36°C. The present study revealed excellent performance of NF membrane, especially its ability to maintain its performance regardless of fouling, cleaning, and long-term operation, which reflected in the outstanding performance of SWRO unit which received feed from NF unit. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Malik A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Meroufel A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Al-Fozan S.,SWCC R&D Center
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015
Boiler tubes are a vital component in the steam/power co-generation plants. Depending on materials, fuel used, and operation practices, different failures could occur. Most of these failures induce shut-down for corrective maintenance. During the last 30 years, steam/power co-generation plants that serve desalination were subject to classical and particular boiler tubes failures. This paper is dedicated for the presentation of some particular failures of boiler tubes that have been studied previously. The particularity originates from the mechanisms combination, the unsuitability of certain surface treatment, etc. Different cases are discussed and some lessons are outlined with regard to operation and maintenance practices that should be respected for boiler tubes integrity. © 2015, ASM International.
Hamed O.A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Kosaka H.,Hitachi Zosen Corporation |
Bamardouf K.H.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Al-Shail K.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Al-Ghamdi A.S.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation
Desalination | Year: 2016
Extensive pilot plant experimental studies for a period of one year were carried out to study the impact of climatic conditions on the operational performance of an innovative Fresnel solar collecting system. The solar measurements revealed that the total yearly Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) on the tested site amounts to 1132 kWh/m2. The thermal collector efficiency, which depends on climatic conditions such as solar insolation, ambient temperature, receiver temperature as well as heat losses, ranges from 60% to 80%. The cost effectiveness when the tested Fresnel solar collection system with solar multiple of 1.0 (limited to day time operation) is combined with a commercial thermal desalination plant is compared with one completely run by fossil fuel. The breakeven fuel cost whereby the levelized cost of water of the two cases will be equal is yielded at a fuel cost of $92/bbl. When the tested Fresnel solar collection system is run at a location with a relatively high annual DNI level (1937 kWh/m2), the fuel breakeven cost falls to $52/bbl. This study also revealed that combining a Fresnel solar collection system with an MED thermal desalination plant under specific climatic conditions is considered more cost effective when operated without thermal energy storage. © 2016
Al-Hamzah A.A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Fellows C.M.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Desalination | Year: 2015
Seawater from the Arabian Gulf was heated under conditions simulating those of thermal desalination processes and the change in the amount of aquated Ca2+ followed over time using Inductively Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission Spectroscopy. This was done in the absence of any scale inhibitor, and in the presence of scale inhibitors: three commercial polycarboxylate products commonly employed in thermal desalination plants and four novel poly(acrylic acid) inhibitors of differing molar masses and end-group functionality. At times >2min, the novel poly(acrylic acid) scale inhibitors of low (~2000) molar mass and moderate (hexyl isobutyrate or cyclohexyl isobutyrate) end-group hydrophobicity were more effective in maintaining the aquated Ca2+ level than any commercial product. © 2014.
Al-Hajouri A.A.,Saline Water Conversion Corporation |
Al-Amoudi A.S.,Saline Water Desalination Research Institute |
Farooque A.M.,Saline Water Desalination Research Institute
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013
Saline Water Conversion Corporation is the pioneer in developing applications and operation of nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment for seawater desalination which was developed by its research arm, namely, the Saline Water Desalination Research Institute. Initial work on a pilot plant scale, resulted in its application in one of the commercial seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants at Ummlujj currently in operation since September 2000. During this long term of operation of NF-SWRO system, a number of improvements were made on the system operation based on operational experiences as well as research, which ultimately resulted in smooth operation of the same. This long-term operation revealed that it is possible to operate NF at 65% recovery at pH= 6 utilizing only low feed pressure of <25 bar. This led to increase in SWRO production by 42%. Also, no chemical cleaning or membrane replacement was required for SWRO membranes. These achievements make the NF-SWRO process economically attractive and feasible. This paper provides an overview of long-term operation of NF-SWRO plant as well as different research programs which were undertaken and results obtained following the application of the same. Major obstacles in the smooth operation of the NF pretreatment and future direction of improvement and research to be adopted are also addressed. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.