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Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3. 43 ± 0. 99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0. 02 ± 0. 01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0. 05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p′-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in liver tissues of seven species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007. All the samples collected were dead as victims of kite flying. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in livers of birds were ranged from 110 ± 32. 6 ng/g wet wt (1,078 ± 320 lipid wt) in common myna Acridotheres tristis to 382 ± 90. 1 ng/g (2,388 ± 563 lipid wt) in white-backed vulture. Statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences in ∑PAHs were observed among species. However, year of collection and sex of birds did not show significant differences in concentrations of PAHs. The levels of ∑PAHs measured in the present study species were higher than the levels documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Presence of PAH residues in birds of Ahmedabad city show the continuous input of PAHs through environmental exposure. Although no threat is posed by any of the hydrocarbons detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies of birds is recommended in unpolluted reference sites as well as polluted sites. It is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of PAHs in various species of birds in India. Therefore, the values reported in this study can serve as baseline values for future research. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center | Muralidharan S.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of ∑HCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while ∑DDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p′-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p′-DDT to p,p′-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Muralidharan S.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Jayanthi P.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences among species were detected for beta- hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), ∑HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl- trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p ′-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Muralidharan S.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010

As part of a larger study assessing contamination status of inland wetlands of India, we evaluated the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in fishes collected from different inland wetlands in Karnataka, India and their suitability for human consumption. Among the OCPs tested, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were the most frequently detected with β- and γ-HCH as the main pollutants. Average concentration of ∑HCH and ∑DDT ranged from 2.1 to 51.7 μg/kg and below detection level to 12.3 μg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine pesticides such as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and endosulphan were found at lower levels. Among various fish species tested, the higher pesticide burden was recorded in Anguilla bicolor bicolour (77.9 μg/kg) and the lower was in Heteropneustes fossilis (2.1 μg/kg). OCPs detected in the present study were well below the tolerance limits recommended for fishes. The calculated daily dietary intake of OCPs in all the species examined was lower than the maximum acceptable dietary intake (ADI) limits prescribed for human consumption. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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