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Gott K.,Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Hospital | Dolling S.,Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Hospital
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2016

A breathing system is a series of components assembled to allow delivery of oxygen and other anaesthetic gases to the patient as well as assisting the removal of carbon dioxide. There are elements that feature in all anaesthetic breathing systems regardless of classification and the layout of individual breathing systems determines their clinical application and use. These will be discussed further in this article together with a brief summary of the use of carbon dioxide absorbers and their function. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

van den Bekerom M.P.J.,Shoulder and Elbow Unit | Kodde I.F.,Amphia Hospital | Aster A.,Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust Hospital | Bleys R.L.A.W.,UMC | Eygendaal D.,Amphia Hospital
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2016

Purpose: The aim of this review was to present an overview, based on a literature search, of surgical anatomy for distal biceps tendon repairs, based on the current literature. Methods: A narrative review was performed using Pubmed/Medline using key words: Search terms were distal biceps, insertional, and anatomy. Results: Last decade, the interest in both reconstruction techniques, as well as surgical anatomy of the distal biceps tendon, has increased. The insights into various aspects of distal biceps tendon anatomy (two tendons, bicipital tuberosity, lacertus fibrosis, bicipital-radial bursa, posterior interosseous nerve, and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve) have evolved significantly in the last years. Conclusion: Thorough knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the surgeon in order to understand the biomechanics of rupture and reconstruction of the distal biceps tendon and to avoid injuries of the nerves. Some tips and tricks are provided, and some pitfalls were described to avoid complications and optimize surgical outcome. Level of evidence: IV. © 2014, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).

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