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Bray B.D.,Kings College London | Tyrrell P.J.,Salford Royal Foundation Trust | Wolfe C.D.A.,Kings College London | Wolfe C.D.A.,National Health Research Institute | Rudd A.G.,Stroke Unit
Age and Ageing

Introduction: until very recently, only small numbers of older patients with stroke had been recruited into randomised controlled trials of thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and patients aged >80 are excluded in the European licence for this therapy. We aimed to estimate the use and outcome of stroke thrombolysis in England across age groups, including the oldest-old. Methods: data were collected as part of the Stroke Improvement National Audit Programme. All adults receiving thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke as part of routine care between April 2010 and November 2011 were included. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between age, process of care and 30-day mortality. Results: of 37,151 adults admitted with acute ischaemic stroke, 3,374 (9.1%) received rt-PA. Patients aged >80 accounted for 21% of the thrombolysis recipients and 4.8% of patients in this age group received rt-PA. Treatment times were similar across all age groups, but older thrombolysis recipients were more likely to have Total anterior circulation infarct strokes and less likely to be functionally independent prior to stroke. Similar rates of post-thrombolysis complications were observed between patients aged >80 and younger patients. Mortality was high among older patients whether they were treated with rt-PA or not. Among patients treated with rt-PA, those aged 81-90 and >90 had, respectively, 34 and 270% higher odds of 30-day mortality than patients aged 70-80. Conclusion: treatment with rt-PA is now carried out frequently for older stroke patients in England. Their care is as timely as younger patients with no higher risk of major complication but mortality rates in older patients with stroke remain high. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. Source

Williamson L.,University of Manchester | New D.,Salford Royal Foundation Trust
BMJ Case Reports

Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. Copyright 2014 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

In 2006, NICE brought out guidance relating to prevention of vCJD through contaminated surgical instruments. This was with the aim of protecting patients born after 1997 who did not have any risk of developing vCJD through eating beef contaminated with BSE through the food chain. Many adult neurosurgical units did not pay much attention to this until 2013 when they were suddenly faced with these children who were now 16 and being admitted to the adult neurosurgical service rather than pediatric. The NICE guidance requires that most patients born after 1997 be operated on using a separate set of neurosurgical instruments than those born before this. This is proving to be a huge financial, as well as logistical, challenge and also a clinical risk as attention is being diverted to searching for the right kit when it should be spent on saving lives. It is now clear in 2013 that the risks that NICE feared were perhaps overstated as there is nowhere near the number of deaths from vCJD that NICE had feared would happen. Worldwide there have been only five cases whereby CJD was transmitted through contaminated neurosurgical instruments and the last case was in 1976. There have been no cases of vCJD transmission attributed to use of contaminated neurosurgical instruments. NICE should revisit this guidance urgently in view of these circumstances. © 2014 The Neurosurgical Foundation. Source

Charlesworth B.,Adelphi Values | Pilling C.,Adelphi Values | Chadwick P.,Salford Royal Foundation Trust | Butcher M.,Northern Devon Healthcare Trust
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research

Background: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence. Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts. Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized dressing-related trauma, identified associated clinical sequelae, and quantified resource utilization associated with a typical occurrence of each trauma concept. Further research is warranted into dressing-related trauma and the associated costs. © 2014 Charlesworth et al. Source

Selvanathan S.K.,Salford Royal Foundation Trust | Hammouche S.,University of Leeds | Salminen H.J.,Birmingham Childrens Hospital | Jenkinson M.D.,Walton Center for Neurology and Neurosurgery
Journal of Neuro-Oncology

Anaplastic ganglioglioma (AGG) are rare central nervous system tumours. Patient and treatment factors associated with outcome are poorly defined and limited to small retrospective case series and single case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry, we investigated potential clinicopathological factors that can affect outcome in patients with anaplastic ganglioglioma. Patients with anaplastic ganglioglioma diagnosed between 1973 and 2007 were identified from the SEER database. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox models were used to examine the effect of variables on overall survival. The variables analysed included patient age at diagnosis, gender, race, tumour location, uni-focal or multi-focal tumour, surgical resection and the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. Fifty-eight patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 25.5 years. Ninety-three percent of patients underwent surgery and 36% received adjuvant radiotherapy. The median overall survival was 28.5 months. The most common tumour site was the temporal lobe (27%). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified surgery and uni-focal disease as important predictors of overall survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy did not influence overall survival. This study represents the largest analysis of anaplastic ganglioglioma to date. Furthermore it also emphasises the role of national tumour databases for furthering our understanding of rare brain tumours and determining management options. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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