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Salerno, Italy

De Luca A.,University of Barcelona | Dantas R.F.,University of Barcelona | Simoes A.S.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Toscano I.A.S.,Federal University of Paraiba | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

Alternative water sources, including effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) are necessary to meet increasing water demand. Advanced oxidation processes based on the Fenton reaction were applied to remove atrazine from the secondary effluents of a MWTP that uses activated sludge. Fenton, UV-A photo-Fenton, and UV-C photo-Fenton treatments were tested. Atrazine removal percentages were around 20% for Fenton, 60% for UV-A photo-Fenton and 70% for UV-C photo-Fenton treatments, respectively. Organic matter mineralization by Fenton treatment was monitored and no significant reduction was observed. However, organic matter oxidation in terms of COD reduction of around 30 and 40% were achieved by Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. The photo-Fenton process with UV-C is a useful technique for atrazine degradation, leading to higher degradation than with UV-A while also being more attractive in an economic point of view. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Gautam R.K.,Allahabad University | Mudhoo A.,University of Mauritius | Lofrano G.,Salerno Province | Chattopadhyaya M.C.,Allahabad University
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014

Heavy metals released from industrial activities pose a significant threat to the environment and public health due to their reported toxicity even at trace levels. Although there are several available methods to treat or remove heavy metals from water and wastewater, the research focuses on development of technological solutions which sound environmental friendly and economically feasible, able to reduce the costs and maximize the efficiency. In this framework, the biosorption process, which uses cheap and non-pollutant materials, may be considered as an alternative, viable and promising, technology for heavy metal and metalloid ions sequestration and ultimately removal technology in the waste water treatment. However, there is as yet little data on full-scale applications for the design and testing of adsorption units using single biosorbents and their combinations to sequester heavy metal ions from multi-metal systems. Immediate research and development is hence earnestly required in this specific direction to further make progress this blooming technology and widen its scope of application to real situations needing heavy metal pollution remediation. This review provides a comprehensive appraisal of the equilibrium modeling of a number of biosorption processes as well as the structural, chemical and morphological modifications and activation of biosorbents. Further the relative merits of the methods used to recover sequestered heavy metal ions and regenerate biosorbents through desorption routes and their future applications are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lofrano G.,Salerno Province | Meric S.,Namik Kemal University | Zengin G.E.,Technical University of Istanbul | Orhon D.,Technical University of Istanbul
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

De Vita P.,University of Naples Federico II | Carratu M.T.,University of Naples Federico II | La Barbera G.,Centro ISIDE s.r.l. | Santoro S.,Salerno Province
Geomorphology | Year: 2013

The Pisciotta landslide is a slow-moving deep-seated rock slide in the Campania region of southern Italy, which has damaged a provincial road several times in the last decades and currently poses a hazard to the national railway that intersects the toe of the landslide. The landslide involves an Oligocene turbidite series, which is composed of intercalated calcarenites, marls and mudrocks.The principal objectives of this study were to investigate the morphological evolution of the unstable slope, quantitatively analyse ground deformations and construct an engineering-geological model that is consistent with the spatial features of the landslide. The long-term evolution of the unstable slope was assessed through the examination of available aerial photos from 1943 to 2006. Kinematic analyses of the ground deformations were conducted based on observed progressive displacement of the road, as evident from the topographic maps and orthophotos (1955-2006), and the bi-weekly displacement survey of 50 targets distributed across the landslide area (September 2006-March 2009). The engineering-geological model of the landslide was reconstructed from the stratigraphic data obtained from the study of borehole data and monitoring of inclinometers as well as from geological, structural and geophysical surveys. The analysis of the aerial photographs revealed an early stage of deformation in 1943, which has been gradually widening since then. In addition to the main scarp and the landslide flanks, other significant landslide structures such as the longitudinal and transverse cracks as well as the positive or negative morphologies were monitored and mapped in the subsequent years. These studies indicated a progressive erosion of the upper part of the slope and a bulging of the foot. Long-term kinematic analysis based on the progressive displacements of the road allowed the measurement of the ground deformations from 1955 to 2009, which revealed a cumulative horizontal displacement of up to 53m and an average velocity of 0.98myear-1, which has increased in the recent decades. In addition, the recent monitoring of the ground deformations demonstrated a continuous activity with an approximately constant rate of displacement and a composite kinematic history of the landslide body through differential displacements and associated velocities. The engineering-geological model of the landslide was found to be controlled by specific stratigraphic and structural constraints. The landslide involves a stratigraphic interval of the Saraceno Formation (Nord-Calabrese tectonic unit) with a largely marly-argillaceous composition whose structural setting displays complex folding (at the mesoscale) and faulting with an approximately monocline attitude of bedding and a downslope dip direction at the macroscale. The left flank of the landslide rests on a normal fault. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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