Lokoja, Nigeria
Lokoja, Nigeria

Salem International University is an American private university located in Salem, West Virginia, in the United States. It has about 835 students, enrolled in undergraduate as well as graduate programs, and was founded by the Seventh Day Baptist Church in 1888. Wikipedia.

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Fowoyo P.T.,Salem University | Ogunbanwo S.T.,University of Ibadan
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2017

Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci have become increasingly recognized as the etiological agent of some infections. A significant characteristic of coagulase-negative staphylococci especially strains isolated from animals and clinical samples is their resistance to routinely used antibiotics although, resistant strains isolated from fermented foods have not been fully reported. Methods: A total of two hundred and fifty-five CoNS isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates to the tested antibiotics was determined using the microbroth dilution method. Methicillin resistant strains were confirmed by detection of methicillin resistant genes (mecA) and also employing cefoxitin screening test. Results: The isolates were confirmed to be methicillin resistant by the detection of mecA genes and the cefoxitin screening test. The isolates demonstrated appreciable resistance to ampicillin (86.7%), sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim (74.9%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (52.5%) and oxacillin (35.7%). Methicillin resistance was exhibited by 13 out of the 255 isolates although no mecA gene was detected. It was also observed that the methicillin resistant isolates were prevalent in these traditional foods; iru, kindirmo, nono and wara. Conclusion: This study has ameliorated the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian fermented foods and if not tackled adequately might lead to horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to man. © 2017 The Author(s).


Oluwagbemi O.O.,Federal University, Lokoja | Oluwagbemi F.E.,Salem University | Fagbore O.,TechPRO Systems and Solutions Ltd
Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences | Year: 2016

Malaria is one of the infectious diseases consistently inherent in many Sub-Sahara African countries. Among the issues of concern are the consequences of wrong diagnosis and dosage administration of anti-malarial drugs on sick patients; these have resulted into various degrees of complications ranging from severe headaches, stomach and body discomfort, blurred vision, dizziness, hallucinations, and in extreme cases, death. Many expert systems have been developed to support different infectious disease diagnoses, but not sure of any yet, that have been specifically designed as a voice-based application to diagnose and translate malaria patients' symptomatic data for pre-laboratory screening and correct prescription of proper dosage of the appropriate medication. We developed Malavefes, (a malaria voice-enabled computational fuzzy expert system for correct dosage prescription of anti-malarial drugs) using Visual Basic.NET., and Java programming languages. Data collation for this research was conducted by survey from existing literature and interview from public health experts. The database for this malaria drug informatics system was implemented using Microsoft Access. The Root Sum Square (RSS) was implemented as the inference engine of Malavefes to make inferences from rules, while Centre of Gravity (CoG) was implemented as the defuzzification engine. The drug recommendation module was voice-enabled. Additional anti-malaria drug expiration validation software was developed using Java programming language. We conducted a user-evaluation of the performance and user-experience of the Malavefes software. © 2017 The Authors.


Nwaneri-Chidozie V.O.,Salem University | Idoko V.O.,Salem University | Salemcity A.J.,Salem University
Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Annona muricata seed extracts (n-hexane and ethanol extracts) were investigated using ascorbic acid as standard. Free radical scavenging activity in vitro was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Lipid peroxidation was assayed using TBARS. Reduced glutathione and catalase activity were also investigated. Twenty-four male albino rats, divided into six groups were used for the invivo assay. Group A (control) received olive oil, group B and C received 200mg/kg n-hexane and ethanol extracts, respectively, group D received ascorbic acid, group E and F received 100mg/kg of n-hexane and ethanol extracts, respectively. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts at 100μg/ml and 20μg/ml, respectively, exhibited 49% and 32% inhibition of DPPH radical, respectively. Ascorbic acid (standard) exhibited upto96.9% inhibition of DPPH radical even at 20μg/ml. The extracts significantly increased catalase activity, glutathione levels and reduced the formation of malondialdehyde in the treated groups compared with the control especially in the heart and liver tissues. The results of the present study suggest that Annona muricataseed extracts could be a promising source of potent antioxidants that could inhibit lipid peroxidation in tissues as well as ameliorate oxidative stress. © 2016 Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences.


Fowoyo P.T.,Salem University | Fowoyo P.T.,University of Ibadan | Ogunbanwo S.T.,Salem University | Ogunbanwo S.T.,University of Ibadan
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2016

The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may render food unsafe, as the clinical isolates have been reported to exude virulent traits. A total of 255 CoNS isolates from 6 traditional fermented foods (nono, kunu, wara, iru, ogi, and kindirmo) from North Central Nigeria, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus caprae, were investigated for virulence traits. The strains were examined for biofilm formation and production of hyaluronidase, DNase, TNase, haemolysins, and superantigenic toxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and TSST-1) using standard and genotypic methods. The analysis of virulence factors revealed the production of slime in 200 isolates (78.4%); α-haemolysin in 136 (53.3%); β-haemolysin in 43 (16.9%); DNase in 199 (78.0%); TNase in 29 (11.4%); hyaluronidase in 125 (49.0%); TSST-1 in 119 (46.7%); and enterotoxin-producing isolates SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED in 61 (23.9%), 19 (7.5%), 9 (3.5%), and 8 (3.1%), respectively. PCR analysis detected tsst-1, sea, seb, and sec genes. The ability of these microorganisms to exhibit virulence evokes the potential to cause disease especially under determinate conditions or in immune-compromised patients. The occurrence of CoNS in food should not be ignored nor their pathogenic potential considered as insignificant, rather safety measures should be taken to reduce or totally eliminate their occurrence in foods. © 2016 Published by NRC Research Press.


Fowoyo P.T.,Salem University | Ogunbanwo S.T.,University of Ibadan
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

A total of thirty lactic acid bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated from the various fermenting stages of white maize gotten from five western states of Nigeria namely Oyo (Ibadan), Lagos, Ondo (Akure), Ogun (Abeokuta) and Ekiti states for Massa production and were subjected to physiological tests. L. fermentum, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici had high survival rates of between 4.00 - 5.23 log10 cfu/ml at a very low pH value of 2. L. lactis produced the highest quantity of lactic acid (8.00 g/l) while L. plantarum produced the highest quantity of hydrogen peroxide (1.68 g/l). A high percentage of phytic acid (5.52 - 6.47%) was produced by L. fermentum, L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. L. fermentum, L. plantarum and P. acidilactici grew well at both low and high temperatures of 10 and 45°C, respectively. All the isolates survived freezing and spray drying conditions with L. plantarum and P. acidilactici having the highest survival rate of 5.62 log10 cfu/ml during freezing while L. fermentum had the highest survival rate of 5.45 log10 cfu/ml during spray drying. All the isolates produced protease and amylase enzyme but did not produce cellulase enzyme. These results showed that the phenotypic diversity of the lactic acid bacteria flora during maize grains fermentation depended on the variety of maize and the sampling location. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Awe S.,Salem University | Eme I.,Salem University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana was screened for its phytochemical and in-vitro antibacterial properties on four clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sp, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The disc diffusion technique was used to assay for the antimicrobial properties. The results showed that the extract of concentrations between 50mg/ml to 200mg/ml inhibit the growth of all test organisms. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determined by tube dilution method were 150mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, 100mg/ml for Escherichia coli and Shigella sp respectively, while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) determined using the media dilution technique showed that at 200mg/ml Escherichia coli and Shigella sp were killed. The phytochemical screening of the leaf extract revealed the presence of Saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids, Phlobatins, Phenolics and Cardiac Glycosides. Some of which may have contributed to the observed anti-bacterial activity.


Awe S.,Salem University | Ohikere A.G.,Salem University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Water samples were collected from five different locations (Jimgbe, Gadumo, Ganaja, Adankolo and Old Market) along River Niger in Lokoja metropolis and analyzed microbiologically and physicochemically using standard methods. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to commercial antibiotics was also assessed. The results showed that pH(at 25-27oC) ranged from 7.0 to 8.0, temperature ranged from 29 to 31oC, chloride level ranged from 0.32 to 2.04 mg/ml, alkalinity ranged from 8.755 to 8.905 mg/ml, bicarbonate ranged from 1.933 to 2.010 mEq/l, turbidity ranged from 5 to 10 NTU, total solid ranged between 0.075 to 0.321 mg/ml, total suspended solid ranged between 0.002 to 0.180 mg/ml while total dissolved solid ranged between 0.023 to 0.420 mg/ml. The mean total viable count ranged from 2.0 to 4.0 x 105 CFU/ml while mean total coliform count ranged from 0 to 8.0 x 105CFU/ml. The most probable number (MPN) count ranged from 1600 to ≥ 2400 MPN/100ml. Predominant bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, Baccilus sp, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Eschericia coli Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella sp. The antibiogram carried out using the disc diffusion technique showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more sensitive to Erythromycin and least to Ampiclox, Baccilus sp most sensitive to Streptomycin and Rocephin and least to Ampiclox. Proteus sp, Salmonella sp, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella sp were highly sensitive to all antibiotics, Eschericia coli most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin and resistant to others while Shigella dysenteriae were highly sensitive to Tarivid and resistant to Amoxacillin and Streptomycin. The resistance of Eschericia coli to 80% of the antibiotics tested is of public health concern.


Nwankwo C.N.,University of Port Harcourt | Ohakwere-Eze M.,Salem University | Ebeniro J.O.,University of Port Harcourt
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology | Year: 2015

This study delineates and maps the hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir HD2000 from surface seismic sections and well logs within the depth interval of 5,700 ft (1,737 m) and 6,200 ft (1,890 m). The objective is to establish the geometry, reservoir distribution, delineate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs from surface seismic sections and well logs. In this process, a 3-D structural interpretation and estimation of the volume of hydrocarbon in place of the reservoirs was carried out. Well-to-seismic tie revealed that hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs were associated with direct hydrocarbon indicators (bright spots and dim spots) on the seismic sections. Two horizons were studied (HD2 and HD2_version2) and several faults mapped for the purpose of carrying out 3-D subsurface structural interpretation. This was used in generating the time structure maps. From the maps, it was observed that the principal structure responsible for hydrocarbon entrapment in the field was the anticlinal structure at the center of the field which tied to the crest of the rollover structure seen on the seismic sections. Check shots from the control well were used to create a velocity model from which the time to depth conversion was made. Horizon slice taken shows the reservoir spans a thickness of 400 ft. Direct hydrocarbon indicators were used to map the reservoir boundary. They were seen on the reflection amplitude maps as high amplitude zones (bright spots) and low amplitude zones (dim spots). Reservoir area extent estimated by square grid template method revealed that reservoir HD2000 had an area estimate of 5.29 km2. The results show the effectiveness of the estimation techniques in the lateral prediction of reservoir properties, discriminating litho-fluid and determining the porosity, saturation, net-to-gross ratio, and moreover the reserve volume. Hydrocarbon saturation varied between 0.64 and 0.65, while effective porosity varied between 0.31 and 0.32. Estimation of the volume of hydrocarbon in place revealed that the delineated reservoir HD2000 contained an estimate of 776,545,418.22 barrels (123,460,855.4 cm3) of hydrocarbon which shows great potential of considerable size. © 2015, The Author(s).


PubMed | Salem University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal of microbiology | Year: 2016

The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may render food unsafe, as the clinical isolates have been reported to exude virulent traits. A total of 255 CoNS isolates from 6 traditional fermented foods (nono, kunu, wara, iru, ogi, and kindirmo) from North Central Nigeria, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus caprae, were investigated for virulence traits. The strains were examined for biofilm formation and production of hyaluronidase, DNase, TNase, haemolysins, and superantigenic toxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and TSST-1) using standard and genotypic methods. The analysis of virulence factors revealed the production of slime in 200 isolates (78.4%); -haemolysin in 136 (53.3%); -haemolysin in 43 (16.9%); DNase in 199 (78.0%); TNase in 29 (11.4%); hyaluronidase in 125 (49.0%); TSST-1 in 119 (46.7%); and enterotoxin-producing isolates SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED in 61 (23.9%), 19 (7.5%), 9 (3.5%), and 8 (3.1%), respectively. PCR analysis detected tsst-1, sea, seb, and sec genes. The ability of these microorganisms to exhibit virulence evokes the potential to cause disease especially under determinate conditions or in immune-compromised patients. The occurrence of CoNS in food should not be ignored nor their pathogenic potential considered as insignificant, rather safety measures should be taken to reduce or totally eliminate their occurrence in foods.


PubMed | Salem University and University of Ibadan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials | Year: 2017

Coagulase-negative staphylococci have become increasingly recognized as the etiological agent of some infections. A significant characteristic of coagulase-negative staphylococci especially strains isolated from animals and clinical samples is their resistance to routinely used antibiotics although, resistant strains isolated from fermented foods have not been fully reported.A total of two hundred and fifty-five CoNS isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the disc diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates to the tested antibiotics was determined using the microbroth dilution method. Methicillin resistant strains were confirmed by detection of methicillin resistant genes (mecA) and also employing cefoxitin screening test.The isolates were confirmed to be methicillin resistant by the detection of mecA genes and the cefoxitin screening test. The isolates demonstrated appreciable resistance to ampicillin (86.7%), sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim (74.9%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (52.5%) and oxacillin (35.7%). Methicillin resistance was exhibited by 13 out of the 255 isolates although no mecA gene was detected. It was also observed that the methicillin resistant isolates were prevalent in these traditional foods; iru, kindirmo, nono and wara.This study has ameliorated the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian fermented foods and if not tackled adequately might lead to horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to man.

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