Winston-Salem, NC, United States
Winston-Salem, NC, United States

See also Salem State College in Massachusetts.Salem College is a liberal arts women's college in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States founded in 1772. Originally established as a primary school, it later became an academy and finally a college. It is the oldest female educational establishment that is still a women's college and the oldest female institution in the Southern United States.Though Salem is officially classified as a women's college, men 23 years of age and over are admitted into the Continuing Education program and into graduate-degree programs.In 2009, Forbes rated it 67th of America's Best Colleges. Wikipedia.


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Santhakumaran A.,Salem College
DSDE 2010 - International Conference on Data Storage and Data Engineering | Year: 2010

Many real world problems can be solved with Artificial Neural Networks in the areas of pattern recognition, signal processing and medical diagnosis. Most of the medical data set is seldom complete. Artificial Neural Networks require complete set of data for an accurate classification. This paper dwells on the various missing value techniques to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed system also investigates the impact on preprocessing during the classification. A classifier was applied to Pima Indian Diabetes Dataset and the results were improved tremendously when using certain combination of preprocessing techniques. The experimental system achieves an excellent classification accuracy of 99% which is best than before. © 2010 IEEE.


Jeyakumar R.P.S.,Karpagam University | Chandrasekaran V.,Salem College
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: Adsorption of lead(II) ions onto activated carbons prepared from the marine green Ulva fasciata sp. (CCUC, SSUC and SCUC) and commercially activated carbon (CAC) was investigated with the variation in the parameters of pH, contact time, lead(II) ions concentration and the adsorbent dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models have been applied. Results: Results showed that the adsorption process was better described by the Langmuir model. Adsorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were investigated using reversible first order, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q0) were 22.93 mg/g for CCUC, 24.15 mg/g for SSUC, 23.47 mg/g for SSUC and 15.62 mg/g for CAC. Conclusions: It was found that the kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo second-order kinetics and SSUC is a superior adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. © 2014, The Author(s).


Venkatesan T.,KS Rangasamy College of Technology | Sanavullah M.Y.,Salem College
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

In this paper, the Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm is proposed to solve the Profit Based Unit Commitment problem under deregulated environment with emission limitation. The bi-objective function optimization problem is formulated as a maximization of the Generation Companies profit and a minimization of the emission output of the thermal units, while all of the constrains should be satisfied. This work, considers the new softer demand constraint to allocate fixed and transitional cost to the scheduled hours. The IEEE 10 unit 39 bus test system with 24 h data is taken as the input for simulation using MATLAB 7.10 version. From the results obtained, it is observed the proposed algorithm achieves maximum profit and minimum emission level with less computational time compared to traditional unit commitment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vijayakumari N.,Salem College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to focus on various factors associated with suicide by hanging at Chennai, India; with a view to identify the areas of intervention. A prospective study was carried out on 65 cases of death due to suicide by hanging which was received by the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College, Chennai, India, during the period of August 2008- July 2009. In the present study, 84.7%% of the cases were below the age of 40years, time of hanging in 50.8% of the cases was 3am-12noon, place of hanging in 95.5% of the cases was their residence, 92.3% were living with their family and 69.2% were married. Most frequent precipitating factors were marital unhappiness (33.8%), problems associated with organic disease (18.5%) and dowry harassment (16.8%). To reduce the incidence of suicides by hanging, there is urgent need to focus on these factors.


Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and is the leading cause of nosocomial infections especially among patients admitted to intensive care units. (ICU).It has been implicated in diverse nosocomial infections. In recent years, a considerable increase in the prevalence and multidrug resistance (MDR) P.aeruginosa has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. So we aimed in the present study to determine the status of antimicrobial resistance to individual antipseudomonal agents and the magnitude of multidrug resistance in these organisms. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze and determine the distribution rate and antimicrobial resistance pattern in P.aeruginosa among clinical specimens for a period of 3 years. Methods: P.aeruginosa were isolated and identified by conventional methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The clinical and specimen distribution properties of P.aeruginosa were evaluated based on their resistance. Results: The isolation rate of P.aeruginosa in this study was 5%, 6.8% and 5% in 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively. Pus, tracheal aspirates and urine were important sources of P.aeruginosa isolation in ICU and non ICU inpatients. Resistance rates of pseudomonas varied with the antibiotics and the high resistance observed was related to the increased use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Multidrug resistance P.aeruginosa is on the rise especially in nosocomial infections. Hence rigorous monitoring of MDR strains, restriction of inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents and adherence of infection control practices should be emphasized to delay the emergence of clinically significant MDR-P.aeruginosa Conclusion: To conclude, although multidrug resistance has commonly been reported in nosocomial P.aeruginosa, community acquired data are less frequently reported. For this reason epidemiological studies on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of resistant isolates in different geographical settings would provide useful information to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy and to contribute to the global picture of antimicrobial resistance. Rigorous monitoring of MDR in P.aeruginosa, restriction of the inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents and adherence of infection control practices should be emphasized to delay the emergence of clinically significant P.aeruginosa.


Govindaraju C.,Salem College | Baskaran K.,Government College of Technology, Coimbatore
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents four different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and compared for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid-modulation strategies represent combinations of fundamental-frequency modulation and multilevel sinusoidal-modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known alternative phase opposition disposition, phase-shifted carrier, carrier-based space-vector modulation, and single-carrier sinusoidal-modulations. The main characteristic of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. MSPWM and its base modulator design are implemented on a TMS320F2407 digital signal processor (DSP). Complex programmable logic device realizes hybrid-modulation algorithm with base pulsewidth modulation (PWM) circulation, and is integrated with DSP for sequential switching hybrid PWM generation. The proposed modulations can be easily extended to three phase, and higher level inverters, operates with same physical structure of the power module. The feasibility of these hybrid modulations are verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis, simulation, and experimental results. © 2006 IEEE.


Govindaraju C.,Salem College
IET Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This study presents certain sequential switching hybrid modulation strategies, and compared for multiphase multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation represents the combination of fundamental frequency, and multilevel sinusoidal modulations and designed for performance of the well-known alternative phase opposition disposition, phase shifted carrier, carrier-based space vector modulation and single-carrier sinusoidal modulations. The main characteristic of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance. A simple sequential switching and base pulse-width modulation (PWM) circulation techniques are embedded with these modulations, to achieve balanced power dissipation among the devices within a cell and for series connected cells, equal load sharing and balanced DC-link capacitor voltages. Multilevel sinusoidal PWM and its base modulation design are implemented on a TMS320F2407 digital signal processor (DSP). Complex programmable logic device realises hybrid control algorithm with base PWM circulation and integrated with DSP for sequential switching hybrid PWM generation. The feasibility of these modulations are theoretically analysed for five-level and then generalised for N-level, validated by simulation and confirmed practically for a five-level inverter. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.


Raj J.S.C.M.,Salem College | Jeyakumar A.E.,Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

A new method of tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) module is presented in this paper, which exploits the effects of the inherent characteristic resistances of the PV cells. An analysis of the iv characteristics of the PV module in the iv plane revealed a possibility of predicting the MPP by finding the maximum possible power rectangle within the iv characteristic. The maximum possible power rectangle has been determined by a background online sweeping technique in the power region of the iv characteristic without disturbing the PV module. The power region in the iv characteristic can be determined by the effects of the characteristic resistances of the PV module. The results obtained through simulations and experiments have validated the proposed technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method has closely matched with the true MPP, and the successful experimental results obtained with a 100-Wp PV module indicate that the technique can be favorably implemented for stand-alone PV power systems. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Christy Mano Raj J.S.,Salem College | Ebenezer Jeyakumar A.,Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

A new method of tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of a photovoltaic (PV) module exploiting the effects of the inherent characteristic resistances of the photovoltaic cells is proposed in this paper. An analysis of the mathematical model of the IV characteristic of the PV module revealed a possibility of estimating the MPP from its characteristic parameters such as the open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Isc), series resistance (Rse) and the shunt resistance (Rsh). The first stage of estimation process, for obtaining the voltage at the MPP, was facilitated by the effects of the series and shunt resistance on the IV characteristic of the PV module and the second stage of estimation process was facilitated by the combined process of the first stage of estimation and the condition for extracting the maximum power from the mathematical model of the pv characteristic of the PV module. The estimated voltage at the MPP in the second stage of estimation was found very close to the true MPP. The effectiveness of tracking the MPP with the proposed method has closely matched with the true MPP. This was validated by the results obtained through simulations and experiments. An analysis of the effects of degradation on the performance of the proposed technique showed that the performance was excellent during the first few years and with the update of characteristic resistances in the proposed algorithm the performance was found to be almost invariant. The successful experimental results obtained with a 100Wp PV module indicate that the technique can be favourably implemented for standalone PV power systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of using diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics in an unmodified diesel engine at different loads and constant engine speed. The results indicate that peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate is higher for BD5 (5% (by vol.) diethyl ether blended biodiesel) than those of neat biodiesel. The carbon monoxide emissions especially at full load and smoke emissions at almost all engine loads decrease while oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbon emissions increase for BD5 than those of neat biodiesel at almost all engine loads. The brake thermal efficiency of BD5 is higher as compared to biodiesel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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