Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL

Spain

Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL

Spain
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Munoz-Castaneda R.,University of Salamanca | Munoz-Castaneda R.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Diaz D.,University of Salamanca | Diaz D.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | And 7 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger synthesized in both the neuronal and glial populations by nitric oxide synthase type 1 (NOS1). Nicotine regulates NO production in a sex-dependent manner, both molecules being involved in motor function. Objective: The present study evaluates sex differences in motor coordination, general movement, and anxiety-related responses resulting from both constant and continuous nicotine treatment and the genetic depletion of NOS1 activity. Methods: Male and female mice were analyzed with the open-field and the rotarod tests. To understand the role of NO, knockout mice for NOS1 (NOS1-/-) were analyzed. Nicotine was administered continuously at a dose of 24 mg/kg/day via osmotic mini-pumps over 14 days because the behavioral effects elicited are similar to those observed with discontinuous administration. Results: Data analyses revealed noteworthy sex differences derived from NOS1 depletion. Control NOS1-/- males exhibited an exacerbated anxiety-related response in relation to control NOS1-/- females and control wild-type (WT) males; these differences disappeared in the nicotine-administered NOS1-/- males. Additionally, nicotine administration differentially affected the horizontal movements of NOS1-/- females with respect to WT animals. NO depletion affected male but not female motor coordination improvement along the test days. However, the drug affected female motor coordination only at the end of the administration period. Conclusions: We show for the first time that NO affects motor and anxiety behaviors in a sex-dependent manner. Moreover, the behavioral effects of constant nicotine administration are dimorphic and dependent on NO production. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Isidoro-Garcia M.,University of Salamanca | Isidoro-Garcia M.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Sanchez-Martin A.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Sanchez-Martin A.,University of Salamanca | And 8 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2017

Heterogeneity defines both the natural history of asthma as well as patient's response to treatment. Pharmacogenomics contribute to understand the genetic basis of drug response and thus to define new therapeutic targets or molecular biomarkers to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This review is initially focused on different genes so far involved in the pharmacological response to asthma treatment. Specific considerations regarding allergic asthma, the pharmacogenetics aspects of polypharmacy and the application of pharmacogenomics in new drugs in asthma will also be addressed. Finally, future perspectives related to epigenetic regulatory elements and the potential impact of systems biology in pharmacogenetics of asthma will be considered. © 2017 Future Medicine Ltd.


Suazo V.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Suazo V.,University of Salamanca | Diez T.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Diez T.,University of Salamanca | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: There is an increasing consideration for a disorganized cerebral activity in schizophrenia, perhaps relating to a synaptic inhibitory deficit in the illness. Noise power (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) may offer a non-invasive window to assess this possibility. Methods: 29 minimally-treated patients with schizophrenia (of which 17 were first episodes) and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical and cognitive assessments and an electroencephalographic recording during a P300 paradigm to calculate signal-to-noise ratio and noise power magnitudes in the theta and gamma bands. Results: In comparison to controls, a significantly higher gamma noise power was common to minimally-treated and first episode patients over P3, P4, T5 and Fz electrode sites. Those high values were directly correlated to negative symptom severity and inversely correlated to verbal memory scores in the patients. There were no differences in signal-to-noise ratio magnitudes among the groups. Gamma noise power at Fz discriminated significantly between patients and controls. No significant differences were found in theta noise power or in gamma noise power over the other electrode sites between the groups of patients and controls. Limitations: We have not assessed phase-locked and non-phase locked power changes, a complementary approach that may yield useful information. Conclusions: Gamma noise power may represent a useful and non-invasive tool for studying brain dysfunction in psychotic illness. These results suggest an inefficient activation pattern in schizophrenia. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Dona I.,University of Malaga | Moreno E.,University of Salamanca | Moreno E.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Perez-Sanchez N.,University of Malaga | And 2 more authors.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2017

Purpose of Review: Quinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics widely use as first-line treatment for many infections. There has been an increase in the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones in recent years, likely due to increased prescription. The purpose of this review is to summarize the clinical pictures, the methods used for diagnosing and the management of allergic reactions to quinolones. Recent Findings: Allergic reactions to quinolones can be immediate or delayed, being anaphylaxis and maculopapular exanthema respectively the most frequent clinical entities. A precise diagnosis is particularly difficult since clinical history is often unreliable, skin tests can induce false-positive results, and commercial in vitro test are not well validated. Therefore, drug provocation testing is considered the gold standard to establish diagnosis, which is not a risk-free procedure. Cross-reactivity between quinolones is difficult to predict due to the small number of patients included in the few published studies. Moreover, hypersensitivity to quinolones has also been associated with beta-lactam and neuromuscular blocking agent allergies, although further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Avoidance of the culprit quinolone is indicated in patients with a diagnosis of hypersensitivity to these drugs. When quinolone treatment is the only therapeutic option available, desensitization is necessary. Summary: This review summarizes the complex diagnostic approach and management of allergic reactions to quinolones. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Moreno E.,University of Salamanca | Moreno E.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Laffond E.,University of Salamanca | Laffond E.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | And 6 more authors.
Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej | Year: 2017

β-lactams are the most widely used antibiotic family, but they are also the most common cause of drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. The estimated prevalence of reported penicillin allergy ranges between 9% and 12%, although a high percentage of patients with a history of penicillin allergy have no subsequent reactions on reexposure to β-lactams. A self-reported penicillin allergy has been associated with antimicrobial resistance, increased cost, intensive care admission, and death, making it essential to establish an accurate diagnosis. In addition to a thorough clinical history, diagnostic methods include skin tests, in vitro tests, and drug-challenge tests. In this review, the diagnosis and management of patients with self-reported penicillin allergy is discussed, including the recently introduced antimicrobial stewardship strategy. © Medycyna Praktyczna, Kraków 2017.


Michie P.T.,University of Newcastle | Malmierca M.S.,University of Salamanca | Malmierca M.S.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Harms L.,University of Newcastle | Todd J.,University of Newcastle
Biological Psychology | Year: 2016

Although the scientific community appears to know a lot about MMN, about its neural generators and the computational processes that underlie its generation, do we have sufficient knowledge to understand what causes the reduction of MMN amplitude in schizophrenia? Here we attempt to integrate the evidence presented in this series of papers for the special issue on MMN in schizophrenia together with evidence from other new relevant research and ask-what have we learnt? While MMN research was the purview for decades of psychophysiologists interested in event-related potentials derived from scalp recorded EEG, it is now part of mainstream neuroscience research attracting the interest of basic auditory neuroscientists, neurobiologists and computational modellers. The confluence of these developments together with increasing clinical research has certainly advanced our understanding of the causes of reduced MMN in schizophrenia as this integrative review attempts to demonstrate-but much remains to be learnt. Future advances will rely on the application of multiple methodologies and approaches in order to arrive at better understanding of the neurobiology of MMN and implications for schizophrenia. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


De Juan-Marcos L.,University of Salamanca | De Juan-Marcos L.,Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL | Escudero-Dominguez F.A.,University of Salamanca | Hernandez-Galilea E.,University of Salamanca | And 8 more authors.
Ophthalmic Genetics | Year: 2016

Purpose: To evaluate the association of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a Spanish population with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (XFG).Materials and methods: The present case-control study included 100 Spanish patients (60 patients with XFS and 40 patients with XFG) and 90 control subjects. Genotypes of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms of LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) were analyzed with direct sequencing.Results: The G allele and the GG genotype of SNP rs3825942 were detected at a statistically higher frequency in pseudoexfoliation patients than in control subjects (p = 3.36 × 10-5, OR = 5.71, 95% CI: 2.30-14.18; p = 3.38 × 10-5, OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 2.51-19.03 respectively). The T allele and the TT genotype of SNP rs2165241 presented at significantly higher frequencies in pseudoexfoliation patients than in controls (p = 2.50 × 10-4, OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.43-3.33; p = 1.21 × 10-2, OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.75-3.85 respectively). No significant association between XFS/XFG and the rs1048661 was observed. The GGT haplotype composed of all three risk alleles was determined to be significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation. The genotypic and allelic distributions of the three SNPs were similar between XFS and XFG.Conclusions: This is the first study associating two SNPs of LOXL1 (rs3825942 and rs2165241) and XFS/XFG in a Spanish population, confirming findings in patients from Europe. However rs1048661 SNP did not show an association with XFS. © 2016 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | Institute for Biomedical Research of Salamanca IBSAL
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry | Year: 2012

There is an increasing consideration for a disorganized cerebral activity in schizophrenia, perhaps relating to a synaptic inhibitory deficit in the illness. Noise power (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) may offer a non-invasive window to assess this possibility.29 minimally-treated patients with schizophrenia (of which 17 were first episodes) and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical and cognitive assessments and an electroencephalographic recording during a P300 paradigm to calculate signal-to-noise ratio and noise power magnitudes in the theta and gamma bands.In comparison to controls, a significantly higher gamma noise power was common to minimally-treated and first episode patients over P3, P4, T5 and Fz electrode sites. Those high values were directly correlated to negative symptom severity and inversely correlated to verbal memory scores in the patients. There were no differences in signal-to-noise ratio magnitudes among the groups. Gamma noise power at Fz discriminated significantly between patients and controls. No significant differences were found in theta noise power or in gamma noise power over the other electrode sites between the groups of patients and controls.We have not assessed phase-locked and non-phase locked power changes, a complementary approach that may yield useful information.Gamma noise power may represent a useful and non-invasive tool for studying brain dysfunction in psychotic illness. These results suggest an inefficient activation pattern in schizophrenia.

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