Shimamura K.,Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. |
Ueno S.,Hiroshima University |
Miyamoto Y.,Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. |
Sato K.,Hiroshima University
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2013
We studied the effects of adding emulsifiers, specifically polyglycerine fatty acid esters (PGFEs), on the crystallization of palm stearin (PS), using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and DSC methods. Our main aim was to examine the effects of the molecular shapes of PGFEs containing palmitic and oleic acid moieties at different ratios, the concentration of PGFE additives, and the cooling rate on the crystallization kinetics of PS in combined ways. We found that all PGFE additives retarded the crystallization of PS when the concentration of PGFEs was low and the cooling rate was low. However, crystallization was promoted when the concentration of PGFEs containing a high amount of palmitic acid moiety was increased and the cooling rate was increased. It was evident that the additive effects due to the PGFEs became less remarkable with increasing concentrations of oleic acid moiety. By contrast, emulsifiers containing palmitic acid moiety strongly affected the crystallization. We discuss the fact that crystallization was promoted by the template effects of PGFEs but was retarded by the disturbance of nucleation and subsequent crystal growth processes caused by the PGFE molecules. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Kuriyama J.,Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. |
Miyaji Y.,Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. |
Tamura K.,Sakamoto Yakuhin Kogyo Co. |
Zaliha O.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board |
Chong C.L.,Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2011
A series of GRAS polyglycerol esters (PGE) has been produced and investigated for improving the dry fractionation of palm oil. Results show that the hydrophobic PGE can reduce the fractionation time and hence the energy consumed during fractionation. This will help to increase throughput for the process and the overall carbon footprint as a result of reducing energy use in the process. The fractionated oleins also exhibited better cloud points of between 7°C and 8°C, and an average iodine value of 57 Wijs. Crystal size was observed to be homogeneous, with the majority of the crystal sizes being in the range of 100 to 300 microns. It was also observed that this crystal size posed no filtration difficulty, as evidenced by the 76% to 78% olein yield obtained during pressing with a squeezing pressure of 5 bars. The stearins obtained were medium hard with iodine values between 33 and 35 Wijs, and slip melting points between 52°C and 53°C.