Sakai City Institute of Public Health

Sakai, Japan

Sakai City Institute of Public Health

Sakai, Japan
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Wang C.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto H.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto H.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Narumiya F.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2017

KEA3 is a thylakoid membrane localized K+/H+ antiporter that regulates photosynthesis by modulating two components of proton motive force (pmf), the proton gradient (∆pH) and the electric potential (∆ψ). We identified a mutant allele of KEA3, disturbed proton gradient regulation (dpgr) based on its reduced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in artificial (CO2-free with low O2) air. This phenotype was enhanced in the mutant backgrounds of PSI cyclic electron transport (pgr5 and crr2-1). In ambient air, reduced NPQ was observed during induction of photosynthesis in dpgr, the phenotype that was enhanced after overnight dark adaptation. In contrast, the knockout allele of kea3-1 exhibited a high-NPQ phenotype during steady state in ambient air. Consistent with this kea3-1 phenotype in ambient air, the membrane topology of KEA3 indicated a proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen to the stroma. The dpgr heterozygotes showed a semidominant and dominant phenotype in artificial and ambient air, respectively. In dpgr, the protein level of KEA3 was unaffected but the downregulation of its activity was probably disturbed. Our findings suggest that fine regulation of KEA3 activity is necessary for optimizing photosynthesis. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd


Kimura T.,Setsunan University | Onodera A.,Osaka University | Onodera A.,Chuo University | Okumura F.,Setsunan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2015

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a carcinogenic heavy metal that is reduced to intermediate oxidation states, such as Cr(V) and Cr(IV), in the process of forming stable Cr(III) forms; it is these intermediate forms that are thought to be responsible for much of the DNA damage and mutations that are induced by Cr(VI). Metallothionein (MT), a heavy metal-binding protein, is induced by zinc and other heavy metals and protects cells from the toxic effects of these metals by sequestering them. MT cannot bind Cr, but by scavenging reactive oxygen species through its cysteine residues, it may act as a protective factor against Cr(VI)-induced DNA lesions by reducing Cr(VI) directly to Cr(III), thereby avoiding the creation of the toxic intermediates. Here, we showed that Zn deficiency decreased MT expression in BALB/3T3 clone A31-1-1 cells and caused them to become highly susceptible to Cr(VI)-induced transformation. To obtain Zn-deficient cultures, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with 10% Chelex®- 100 chelating resin-treated FBS. The increase in susceptibility to transformation was abolished by culturing the cells with supplemental Zn (50 μM). Previously, we reported that Cr(VI) inhibits MT transcription by preventing the zinc-dependent formation of a complex of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) and the co-activator p300. Our results suggest that the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) is enhanced by MTF-1 dysfunction. © 2015, Japanese Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Okayama University of Science, Sakai City Institute of Public Health and Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Type: | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2016

Multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were modified to detect 10 types of gastroenteritis viruses by adding two further assays to a previously developed assay. Then, these assays were applied to clinical samples, which were collected between January 2006 and December 2013. All 10 types of viruses were effectively detected in the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays. In addition, various viral parameters, such as the detection rates and age distributions of each viral type, were examined. The frequency and types of mixed infections were also investigated. Among the 186 virus-positive samples, genogroup II noroviruses were found to be the most common type of virus (32.7%), followed by group A rotaviruses (10.6%) and parechoviruses (10.3%). Mixed infections were observed in 37 samples, and many of them were detected in patients who were less than 2 years old. These observations showed that the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were able to effectively detect the viruses circulating among pediatric acute gastroenteritis patients and contributed to the highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Matsuzaki Y.,Yamagata University | Sugawara K.,Yamagata University | Nakauchi M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Takahashi Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

We determined the antigenic structure of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus hemagglutinin (HA) using 599 escape mutants that were selected using 16 anti-HA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against A/Narita/1/2009. The sequencing of mutant HA genes revealed 43 amino acid substitutions at 24 positions in three antigenic sites, Sa, Sb, and Ca2, which were previously mapped onto A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (A/PR/8/34) HA (A. J. Caton, G. G. Brownlee, J. W. Yewdell, and W. Gerhard, Cell 31:417- 427, 1982), and an undesignated site, i.e., amino acid residues 141, 142, 143, 171, 172, 174, 177, and 180 in the Sa site, residues 170, 173, 202, 206, 210, 211, and 212 in the Sb site, residues 151, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 200, and 238 in the Ca2 site, and residue 147 in the undesignated site (numbering begins at the first methionine). Sixteen MAbs were classified into four groups based on their cross-reactivity with the panel of escape mutants in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Among them, six MAbs targeting the Sa and Sb sites recognized both residues at positions 172 and 173. MAb n2 lost reactivity when mutations were introduced at positions 147, 159 (site Ca2), 170 (site Sb), and 172 (site Sa). We designated the site consisting of these residues as site Pa. From 2009 to 2013, no antigenic drift was detected for the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. However, if a novel variant carrying a mutation at a position involved in the epitopes of several MAbs, such as 172, appeared, such a virus would have the advantage of becoming a drift strain. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


Iritani N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kaida A.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Abe N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kubo H.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2014

Enteric viruses are an important cause of viral food-borne disease. Shellfish, especially oysters, are well recognized as a source of food-borne diseases, and oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks have on occasion become international occurrences. In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for the presence of 10 human enteric viruses using antigenic or genetic detection methods in order to determine the prevalence of these infections. All virus-positive patients were over 18 years old. The most common enteric virus in outbreaks (96.6%) and fecal specimens (68.9%) was norovirus (NoV), indicating a high prevalence of NoV infection associated with the consumption of raw or under-cooked oysters. Five other enteric viruses, aichiviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and rotavirus A, were detected in 30.7% of outbreaks. EV strains were characterized into three rare genotypes, coxsackievirus (CV) A1, A19, and EV76. No reports of CVA19 or EV76 have been made since 1981 in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report by the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, Japan. Their detection suggested that rare types of EVs are circulating in human populations inconspicuously and one of their transmission modes could be the consumption of contaminated oysters. Rapid identification of pathogens is important for the development of means for control and prevention. The results of the present study will be useful to establish an efficient approach for the identification of viral pathogens in oyster-associated gastroenteritis in adults. J. Med. Virol. 86:2019-2025, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Saito H.,Akita | Toho M.,Fukui Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment Science | Tanaka T.,Sakai City Institute of Public Health | Noda M.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2015

Various methods to detect foodborne viruses including norovirus (NoV) in contaminated food have been developed. However, a practical method suitable for routine examination that can be applied for the detection of NoVs in oily, fatty, or emulsive food has not been established. In this study, we developed a new extraction and concentration method for detecting NoVs in contaminated composite meals. We spiked NoV-GI.4 or -GII.4 stool suspension into potato salad and stir-fried noodles. The food samples were suspended in homogenizing buffer and centrifuged to obtain a food emulsion. Then, anti-NoV-GI.4 or anti-NoV-GII.4 rabbit serum raised against recombinant virus-like particles or commercially available human gamma globulin and Staphylococcus aureus fixed with formalin as a source of protein A were added to the food emulsion. NoV-IgG-protein A-containing bacterial complexes were collected by centrifugation, and viral RNA was extracted. The detection limits of NoV RNA were 10–35 copies/g food for spiked NoVs in potato salad and stir-fried noodles. Human gamma globulin could also concentrate other NoV genotypes as well as other foodborne viruses, including sapovirus, hepatitis A virus, and adenovirus. This newly developed method can be used as to identify NoV contamination in composite foods and is also possibly applicable to other foodborne viruses. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Kobayashi K.,Sakai City Institute of Public Health
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases, including mycobacterial disease such as tuberculosis (TB) and diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), is a very important element of global health. The gold standard in diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases remains clinical examination, combined with direct microscopic examination of sputum and culture of bacteria. Culture of slowly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM (such as M. avium complex: MAC), can take up to 4 to 6 weeks, and in 10–20% of cases the bacillus is not successfully cultivated. Diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is complicated and time-consuming (usually at least 1 month). I have characterized the nature of MAC antigens and immune responses from the aspect of basic mycobacteriology, and then translated to clinical science. My multicenter study in Japan has demonstrated the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test to determine serum IgA antibodies against mycobacterial glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen for diagnosing MAC-PD within a few hours. To validate in a larger number of patients, at diverse geographic locations, and among other races, the test was also assessed the usefulness internationally in the United States and Taiwan. In this review, I discuss development of serodiagnosis of MAC-PD by translational research and international collaboration study. © 2014 National Institute of Health. All rights reserved.


Miyoshi T.,Sakai City Institute of Public Health | Miyoshi T.,Osaka University | Uchino K.,Sakai City Institute of Public Health | Yoshida H.,Sakai City Institute of Public Health | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2015

The duration of viral shedding in the patients from two outbreaks and four sporadic cases of norovirus (NoV) infections was investigated. The longest period of viral shedding into feces was for 173 days in an inpatient from one case of outbreak. The VP1 sequence from two long-term viral shedding cases in the outbreak revealed four synonymous and one non-synonymous mutations in one inpatient at 26 days from the onset of illness, and nine synonymous and two non-synonymous mutations and a deletion, 10 synonymous mutations and a deletion in other inpatient at 29 days and 54 days from the onset of illness, respectively. Ten of the 11 amino acid positions detected in these two inpatients were in the outermost P2 domain of the viral capsid protein, and mutations at positions 295, 297, and 394 were shared in the inpatients. Mutations in the P2 domain were in epitopes A and D or near epitopes A, C, and E, suggesting that the long-term carrier state of norovirus infection contributes to the generation of escape mutants by host immunoselection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | National Hospital Organization and Sakai City Institute of Public Health
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2016

The diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is sometimes complicated and time-consuming. A serodiagnostic kit that measures the serum levels of IgA antibodies against the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core is commercially available and has good diagnostic accuracy for MAC-PD. However, the significance of measurement of GPL core IgA antibody levels in monitoring for chemotherapy response in patients with MAC-PD was not well investigated.Thirty-four treatment nave MAC-PD patients who were started on multidrug chemotherapy were enrolled. Their antibody levels were prospectively measured at regular intervals. The relationships between their antibody levels and the therapeutic outcomes were examined. The patients were classified into three groups (conversion, recurrence, and non-conversion) based on the bacteriological outcomes after chemotherapy.There were no significant differences in the antibody levels before treatment between the culture conversion (n = 19), recurrence (n = 7), and non-conversion group (n = 8) (p = 0.9881). The levels decreased significantly after the chemotherapy (p < 0.0001). Recurrence and/or worsening of chest radiography findings were observed in cases whose antibody levels subsequently increased after cessation of the chemotherapy. No significant difference in the percent decrease in antibody levels by the chemotherapy was observed between the culture conversion and recurrence groups (p = 0.9338).The initial antibody levels are not a predictor of therapeutic outcomes, and also the percent decrease in antibody levels is not a sufficient indicator of the cessation of chemotherapy. However, serial measurements of antibody levels may allow objective monitoring of disease activity in individual MAC-PD patients.


PubMed | Osaka University and Sakai City Institute of Public Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2015

The duration of viral shedding in the patients from two outbreaks and four sporadic cases of norovirus (NoV) infections was investigated. The longest period of viral shedding into feces was for 173 days in an inpatient from one case of outbreak. The VP1 sequence from two long-term viral shedding cases in the outbreak revealed four synonymous and one non-synonymous mutations in one inpatient at 26 days from the onset of illness, and nine synonymous and two non-synonymous mutations and a deletion, 10 synonymous mutations and a deletion in other inpatient at 29 days and 54 days from the onset of illness, respectively. Ten of the 11 amino acid positions detected in these two inpatients were in the outermost P2 domain of the viral capsid protein, and mutations at positions 295, 297, and 394 were shared in the inpatients. Mutations in the P2 domain were in epitopes A and D or near epitopes A, C, and E, suggesting that the long-term carrier state of norovirus infection contributes to the generation of escape mutants by host immunoselection.

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