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Mosquera T.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Mosquera T.,National University of Colombia | Alvarez M.F.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Alvarez M.F.,National University of Colombia | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, which can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the past 160 years, late blight has been the most important potato disease worldwide. The identification of cultivars with high and durable field resistance to P. infestans is an objective of most potato breeding programs. This type of resistance is polygenic and therefore quantitative. Its evaluation requires multi-year and location trials. Furthermore, quantitative resistance to late blight correlates with late plant maturity, a negative agricultural trait. Knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity is very limited. It is however essential for developing diagnostic DNA markers that facilitate the efficient combination of superior resistance alleles in improved cultivars. We used association genetics in a population of 184 tetraploid potato cultivars in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight. The population was genotyped for almost 9000 SNPs from three different sources. The first source was candidate genes specifically selected for their function in the jasmonate pathway. The second source was novel candidate genes selected based on comparative transcript profiling (RNA-Seq) of groups of genotypes with contrasting levels of quantitative resistance to P. infestans. The third source was the first generation 8.3k SolCAP SNP genotyping array available in potato for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Twenty seven SNPs from all three sources showed robust association with MCR. Some of those were located in genes that are strong candidates for directly controlling quantitative resistance, based on functional annotation. Most important were: a lipoxygenase (jasmonate pathway), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (mevalonate pathway), a P450 protein (terpene biosynthesis), a transcription factor and a homolog of a major gene for resistance to P. infestans from the wild potato species Solanum venturii. The candidate gene approach and GWAS complemented each other as they identified different genes. The results of this study provide new insight in the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance in potato and a toolbox of diagnostic SNP markers for breeding applications. © 2016 Mosquera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Draffehn A.M.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Draffehn A.M.,A-Life Medical | Li L.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Li L.,Northeast Forestry University | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Resistance to pathogens is essential for survival of wild and cultivated plants. Pathogen susceptibility causes major losses of crop yield and quality. Durable field resistance combined with high yield and other superior agronomic characters are therefore, important objectives in every crop breeding program. Precision and efficacy of resistance breeding can be enhanced by molecular diagnostic tools, which result from knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility. Breeding uses resistance conferred by single R genes and polygenic quantitative resistance. The latter is partial but considered more durable. Molecular mechanisms of plant pathogen interactions are elucidated mainly in experimental systems involving single R genes, whereas most genes important for quantitative resistance in crops like potato are unknown. Quantitative resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans causing late blight is often compromised by late plant maturity, a negative agronomic character. Our objective was to identify candidate genes for quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late plant maturity. We used diagnostic DNA-markers to select plants with different field levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight and compared their leaf transcriptomes before and after infection with P. infestans using SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) technology and next generation sequencing. We identified 2034 transcripts up or down regulated upon infection, including a homolog of the kiwi fruit allergen kiwellin. 806 transcripts showed differential expression between groups of genotypes with contrasting MCR levels. The observed expression patterns suggest that MCR is in part controlled by differential transcript levels in uninfected plants. Functional annotation suggests that, besides biotic and abiotic stress responses, general cellular processes such as photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and degradation play a role in MCR. © 2013 Draffehn, Li, Krezdorn, Ding, Lübeck, Strahwald, Muktar, Walkemeier, Rotter and Gebhardt.

Ballvora A.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Ballvora A.,University of Bonn | Flath K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Lubeck J.,SaKa Pflanzenzucht GmbH and Co. KG | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The obligate biotrophic, soil-borne fungus Synchytrium endobioticum causes wart disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a serious problem for crop production in countries with moderate climates. S. endobioticum induces hypertrophic cell divisions in plant host tissues leading to the formation of tumor-like structures. Potato wart is a quarantine disease and chemical control is not possible. From 38 S. endobioticum pathotypes occurring in Europe, pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 are the most relevant. Genetic resistance to wart is available but only few current potato varieties are resistant to all four pathotypes. The phenotypic evaluation of wart resistance is laborious, time-consuming and sometimes ambiguous, which makes breeding for resistance difficult. Molecular markers diagnostic for genes for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 would greatly facilitate the selection of new, resistant cultivars. Two tetraploid half-sib families (266 individuals) segregating for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 were produced by crossing a resistant genotype with two different susceptible ones. The families were scored for five different wart resistance phenotypes. The distribution of mean resistance scores was quantitative in both families. Resistance to pathotypes 2, 6 and 18 was correlated and independent from resistance to pathotype 1. DNA pools were constructed from the most resistant and most susceptible individuals and screened with genome wide simple sequence repeat (SSR), inverted simple sequence region (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified three SSR markers that were linked to wart resistance loci (Sen). Sen1-XI on chromosome XI conferred partial resistance to pathotype 1, Sen18-IX on chromosome IX to pathotype 18 and Sen2/6/18-I on chromosome I to pathotypes 2,6 and 18. Additional genotyping with 191 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers confirmed the localization of the Sen loci. Thirty-three SNP markers linked to the Sen loci permitted the dissection of Sen alleles that increased or decreased resistance to wart. The alleles were inherited from both the resistant and susceptible parents. © 2011 The Author(s).

Muktar M.S.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Lubeck J.,Saka Pflanzenzucht GmbH and Co. KG | Strahwald J.,Saka Pflanzenzucht GmbH and Co. KG | Gebhardt C.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i) the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii) the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR). Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28 to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111) identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification, and in the response to pathogen elicitors. © 2015 Muktar, Lübeck, Strahwald and Gebhardt.

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