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Yanagi Y.,Kyoto University | Hirooka H.,Kyoto University | Oishi K.,Kyoto University | Choumei Y.,Ryukoku University | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry

A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of stable isotope analysis for inferring the feeding histories of cattle fed known feeds. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ 13C and δ 15N) were measured in meat and hair from cattle and in their feeds at five farms in different regions of Japan, and the correlations of the isotope ratios between meat and hair were analysed. The results showed that δ 13C values in feed depend on the photosynthesis type: C 3 or C 4. The values of δ 15N in feeds varied widely, indicating divergent feeds made from plant materials that have different nitrogen origins, such as soil, chemical fertilizer, manure and air. In both cattle meat and hair, the farms differed significantly in the values of δ 13C and δ 15N. Both δ 13C and δ 15N were significantly higher in hair than in meat, and high correlations between meat and hair in both δ 13C and δ 15N were found. The results suggested that stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for cattle meat and hair could be used to trace the feeding histories of cattle in Japan, and that hair samples would be used as an alternative to meat. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hasegawa T.,Saitama University | Akutsu K.,Saitama University | Kishi Y.,Saitama University | Nakamura K.,Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center
Natural Product Communications

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are known to contain active ingredients such as catechins and caffeine, and are widely useful materials. Recently, green tea flowers also have been in the spotlight. However, little attention has been paid to the tea seeds. In this work, the constituents of green tea seeds and green tea leaves were compared. Caffeine was found in the seeds, whereas catechins (usually obtained from green tea leaves) were not observed. Next, we investigated the constituents of hexane extracts and methanol extracts of green tea seeds. We found that the hexane extracts contained high amounts of oleic glyceride (79.9%) in addition to linoleic glyceride (20%). We confirmed the structures of these glycerides by NMR spectroscopy and by synthesis from a fatty acid and glycerol. The methanol extract was found to contain naringenin glucosides by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Source

Takahashi A.,Research Institute for Clinical Oncology | Takahashi A.,Saitama University | Takahashi A.,Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Watanabe T.,Research Institute for Clinical Oncology | And 9 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Cell motility and cell stiffness are closely related to metastatic activity of cancer cells. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to inhibit spontaneous metastasis of melanoma cell line into the lungs of mice, so we studied the effects of EGCG on cell motility, cell stiffness, and expression of vimentin and Slug, which are molecular phenotypes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Treatments of human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines H1299 and Lu99 with 50 and 100 μM EGCG reduced cell motility to 67.5% and 43.7% in H1299, and 71.7% and 31.5% in Lu99, respectively in in vitro wound healing assay. Studies on cell stiffness using atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that treatment with 50 μM EGCG increased Young's modulus of H1299 from 1.24 to 2.25. kPa and that of Lu99 from 1.29 to 2.28. kPa, showing a 2-fold increase in cell stiffness, i.e. rigid elasticity of cell membrane. Furthermore, treatment with 50 μM EGCG inhibited high expression of vimentin and Slug in the cells at a leading edge of scratch. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a reagent to deplete cholesterol in plasma membrane, showed inhibition of EMT phenotypes similar that by EGCG, suggesting that EGCG induces inhibition of EMT phenotypes by alteration of membrane organization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Abe K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Nakamura K.,Sumika Chemical Analysis Service Ltd | Arao T.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Sakurai Y.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

A simple and quick on-site test for trace levels of cadmium (Cd) in food is needed because of the human toxicity of this heavy metal. We developed an immunochromatography kit which uses the antigen-antibody complex reaction between the Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex and an anti-Cd-EDTA antibody. We previously reported the successful use of this kit to determine Cd concentrations in brown rice with respect to the international standard: 0.4 mg kg -1. Here, we measured, using this immunochromatography kit, Cd concentrations in crops with lower international standards than rice. RESULTS: Cadmium extracted with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl from wheat grain and fresh eggplant was purified sufficiently using an ion-exchange column treatment. Appropriate HCl extraction rates and dilution rates for the column eluate were selected; Cd concentrations in wheat grain and fresh eggplant were determined successfully by immunochromatography with respect to the international standards of 0.2 mg kg -1 and 0.05 mg kg -1 fresh weight, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximate Cd concentrations in wheat grain and fresh eggplant can be monitored easily and quickly by this method at locations where facilities for acid digestion and precision analysis are not available. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Kamata A.,Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Honda Y.,The Green Tea Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Miyazaki Y.,The Green Tea Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

We investigated radiocesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L. var. sinensis) of Saitama Prefecture, located approximately 200–250 km away from Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In 2012, more than 2500 samples of tea plants were analyzed. We found differences in radiocesium concentration among tea plant cultivars, which appeared to be attributable mainly to the leaf morphology and depth of the leaf layer in tea plants. Furthermore, the radiocesium concentration in the first tea crop showed a strong correlation with that in spring skiffing. © 2015 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Source

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