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Matsuzaki K.,Nihon University | Ishii R.,Saitama Institute of Public Health | Kobiyama K.,Nihon University | Kitanaka S.,Nihon University
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2010

New benzophenone and flavonol galloyl glycosides were isolated from an 80% MeOH extract of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) together with five known quercetin glycosides. The structures of the novel glycosides were elucidated to be 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-(6′-O-galloyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1, guavinoside A), 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6′-Ogalloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, guavinoside B), and quercetin 3-O-(5′-O-galloyl)-a-L-arabinofuranoside (3, guavinoside C) by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopies. Isolated phenolic glycosides showed significant inhibitory activities against histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, and nitric oxide production from a murine macrophage- like cell line, RAW 264.7. © The Author(s) 2010.

Wajima T.,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science | Morozumi M.,Keio University | Hanada S.,Toranomon Hospital | Sunaoshi K.,Saitama Institute of Public Health | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

We collected β-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010–March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99%m of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD ±15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient’s age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide-and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed blactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Ochiai Y.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Yamada F.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | Yamada F.,Saitama Institute of Public Health | Batmunkh O.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retailed meats, comprising beef, chicken, and pork, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 379 samples of retailed meat were collected from 1998 to 2003, most of which were obtained by simultaneously purchasing the three classes of meat from a shop and then making another simultaneous purchase of meat from the same shop a few weeks later. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 28.0%, and the serotypes isolated were mainly 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b. Comparison of the prevalence of each serotype among the classes of meat showed a predominant distribution of serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b in chicken, while serotype 1/2c was dominant in pork. A total of nine cases considered to be due to persistence and/or cross-contamination were found. Most of the strains involved in persistence and/or cross-contamination were of serotypes 1/2c or 4b. These results suggest that contamination in retailed meat in Japan is at almost the same level as in other countries and that chicken has the highest potential as a source of contamination and infection. In addition, we suggest that the ecological niche of serotype 1/2c is distinct from those of 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b, which may explain why human hosts have less opportunity to be exposed to serotype 1/2c and why there is a lower rate of isolation of this serotype from cases of human listeriosis. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.

Hara-Kudo Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Saito S.,Akita | Ohtsuka K.,Saitama Institute of Public Health | Yamasaki S.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been one of the most important foodborne pathogens in Japan since the 1960s, and a large epidemic was caused by the pandemic serotype O3:K6 from 1997 to 2001. V. parahaemolyticus infections, however, have sharply declined since that time. Data on serotypes isolated from 977 outbreaks were collected and analysed. Total and pathogenic, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) gene-positive V. parahaemolyticus were qualitatively and quantitatively detected in 842 seafood samples from wholesale markets in 2007-2009. Strains isolated from patients and seafood were analysed by serotyping, tdh-PCR, group-specific PCR for pandemic strains, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The sharp decrease in the infections from 1999 onwards was noted not only for O3:K6 infections but also for other serotypes. The change in the seafood contamination situation from 2001 to 2007-2009 was characterised by a decrease to three-fourths in the frequency of tdh-positive samples, although that decrease was small compared to the 18-fold decrease in the cases of V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks. PFGE detected the pandemic O3:K6 serotype in the same profile in seafood and patients from 1998 to the present. Because of no large decrease in seafood contamination by V. parahaemolyticus from the production to distribution stages and the presence of pandemic O3:K6 serotype in seafood to the present, it was suggested that the change of seafood contamination was unrelated to the sharp decrease in V. parahaemolyticus infections. V. parahaemolyticus infections might be prevented at the stages after the distribution stage. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Takekuma M.,Saitama Institute of Public Health | Saito K.,Hoshi University | Falandysz J.,University of Gdansk | Nakazawa H.,Hoshi University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

This study investigates the compositional variations, changes in concentrations and contribution of particular congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs and mono-ortho PCBs in human milk from two mothers sampled during the 12-month lactation period. Total PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB concentration in milk sampled from the primiparous mother on day 5 after delivery was 37. pg. TEQ/g fat, and this value decreased significantly by 43% at 12. months. In milk sampled from the multiparous mother nursing her second child on day 5 after delivery was 12. pg. TEQ/g fat, and this value decreased by 40% at 12. months. The decrease was statistically significant not for PCDD/Fs, but for dioxin-like PCBs. The ratio variance of the congener profiles of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the milk remained similar during lactation. Moreover, the congener profiles of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the milk showed similar percentages for both mothers independent of the lactation event and the number of previous births. The mean daily intake of dioxins by the infant nursed by the primiparous mother and the infant nursed by the multiparous mother up to six months of age was 140 and 46. pg TEQ/kg body weight, respectively. From seven to twelve months of age, the mean daily intake was 37 and 13. pg TEQ/kg body weight, respectively. Both values decreased by approximately 70%. The reasons why the mothers' body burden of dioxins decreased by breastfeeding and why the infants' daily intake of human milk per body weight decreased as the infant grows older consequently decreased were considered. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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