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Amano M.,Okayama University | Amano M.,Saitama Gensyu Ikuseikai Co. | Toyoda K.,Okayama University | Kiba A.,Okayama University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

When an elicitor is applied to plants to induce resistance, one of the first detectable events is the efflux of ions from the treated tissue. Here we are the first to demonstrate that an elicitor from Mycosphaerella pinodes evokes leakage of Na+ and K+ ions from isolated cell walls of pea and cowpea in vitro, as observed for epicotyl tissues. Pharmacological experiments showed that this elicitor-stimulated leakage was sensitive to vanadate and N-(3-methylphenyl)biphenyl-4-sulfonamide (NGXT-191), that inhibit a cell wall-associated ATPase (apyrase). Vanadate or NGXT-191 suppressed elicitor-induced superoxide generation and expression of defense genes in vivo. On the basis of these results, we assume that the leakage of these ions, probably associated with an ATP-dependent process(es) in the cell wall, is likely associated with induced defenses of pea and cowpea. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan. Source

Toyoda K.,Okayama University | Yao S.,Okayama University | Takagi M.,Okayama University | Uchioki M.,Okayama University | And 14 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

The plant cell wall, the most external layer of the plant surface, is the site where most pathogenic fungi first make contact with host cells. A plant-fungus interaction therefore commences at the interface between the plant and the spore. Our current research focusing on the plant cell wall has discovered an extracellular ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ecto-NTPDase/apyrase; EC3.6.1.15) as a key player in plant defense before the onset of PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity). This review focuses on our recent findings, especially the role of the plant cell wall in the extracellular defense against fungi as well as fungal strategies resulting in successful infection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Svoboda J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Leisova-Svobodova L.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Amano M.,Saitama Gensyu Ikuseikai Co.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes considerable losses of cucurbitaceous vegetables grown nearly all over the world; indeed, the commonly planted cultivars are highly susceptible to ZYMV. In all, 3 cultivars of American and 8 of European summer squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 6 Japanese and 21 European cucumber lines (Cucumis sativus), including both slicing and pickling species, were selected for the evaluation of their resistance to the most virulent Czech strain, ZYMV-H (GenBank accession number DQ144054). Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) 'Menina 15', Chinese slicing cucumber 'Taichung Mou Gua-1' (TMG-1), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) accession PI 595203 were included in the experiment, because they were reported to be resistant to ZYMV. The tested plants were mechanically inoculated by ZYMV-H and their resistance was assessed through a comparison of the relative virus protein concentrations and visual symptoms. Butternut squash Menina 15, Chinese slicing cucumber TMG-1, Japanese slicing cucumber breeds 'G22' and 'A192-18', and watermelon PI 595203 were evaluated as immune: the virus concentration in their leaves was zero, as verified by polymerase chain reaction. American summer squash 'Cougar' and Japanese slicing cucumber breeds 'A202-18', 'R10', and 'S93-18' were clearly resistant, because the virus multiplied at a low rate in these plants. The remaining tested cultivars were tolerant or susceptible to ZYMV. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Amano M.,Saitama Gensyu Ikuseikai Co. | Mochizuki A.,Saitama Gensyu Ikuseikai Co. | Kawagoe Y.,Nihon University | Iwahori K.,Nihon University | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Key message: Using a high-resolution mapping approach, we identified a candidate gene for ZYMV resistance in cucumber. Our findings should assist the development of high-versatility molecular markers for MAS for ZYMV resistance. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes significant disease, which leads to fruit yield loss in cucurbit crops. Since ZYMV resistance is often inherited recessively in cucumber, marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a useful tool for the development of resistant cucumber cultivars. Using 128 families of an F2:3population derived from a cross between susceptible 'CS-PMR1' and resistant 'A192-18' cucumber inbred lines, we confirmed that ZYMV resistance is conferred by a single recessive locus: zymA192-18. We constructed a cucumber genetic linkage map that included 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into 7 linkage groups (chromosomes). The zymA192-18locus was mapped to chromosome 6, at genetic distances of 0.9 and 1.3 cM from two closely linked SSR markers. For high-resolution genetic mapping, we identified new molecular markers cosegregating with the zymA192-18locus; using cucumber genomic and molecular marker resources and screening an F2population of 2,429 plants, we narrowed down the zymA192-18locus to a <50-kb genomic region flanked by two SSR markers, which included six candidate genes. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes' coding regions revealed that the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4-like (VPS4-like) gene had two SNPs between the parental lines. Based on SNPs of the VPS-4-like gene, we developed zymA192-18-linked DNA markers and found that genotypes associated with these markers were correlated with the ZYMV resistance phenotype in 48 cucumber inbred lines. According to our data, the gene encoding VPS4-like protein is a candidate for the zymA192-18locus. These results may be valuable for MAS for ZYMV resistance in cucumber. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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