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Weber R.,University of Zurich | Sabin C.,University College London | De Wit S.,CHU Saint Pierre Hospital | Worm S.W.,Copenhagen University | And 10 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2010

Background: Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: The prospective observational database of the D:A:D collaboration of 11 cohorts of HIV-infected individuals, including 212 clinics in Europe, the United States and Australia was used. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of HCV or HBV infection on the development of myocardial infarction after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes mellitus and exposure to antiretroviral therapy. Results: Of 33,347 individuals, 517 developed a myocardial infarction over 157,912 person-years, with an event rate of 3.3 events/1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-3.6). Event rates (95% CIs) per 1,000 person-years in those who were HCV- seronegative and HCV-seropositive were 3.3 (3.0-3.7) and 2.7 (2.2-3.3), respectively, and for those who were HBV-seronegative, had inactive infection or had active infection were 3.2 (2.8-3.5), 4.2 (3.1-5.2) and 2.8 (1.8-3.9), respectively. After adjustment, there was no association between HCV seropositivity (rate ratio 0.86 [95% CI 0.62-1.19]), inactive HBV infection (rate ratio 1.07 [95% CI 0.79-1.43]) or active HBV infection (rate ratio 0.78 [95% CI 0.52-1.15]) and the development of myocardial infarction. Conclusions: We found no association between HBV or HCV coinfection and the development of myocardial infarction among HIV-infected individuals. ©2010 International Medical Press. Source


Kamara D.A.,University College London | Worm S.W.,Copenhagen University | Rickenbach M.,University of Lausanne | Phillips A.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

We assessed whether fasting modifies the prognostic value of these measurements for the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Analyses used mixed effect models and Poisson regression. After confounders were controlled for, fasting triglyceride levels were, on average, 0.122 mmol/L lower than nonfasting levels. Each 2-fold increase in the latest triglyceride level was associated with a 38% increase in MI risk (relative rate, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.51); fasting status did not modify this association. Our results suggest that it may not be necessary to restrict analyses to fasting measurements when considering MI risk. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Worm S.W.,Copenhagen University | Kamara D.A.,University College London | Kirk O.,Copenhagen University | El-Sadr W.,Columbia University | And 10 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2011

Objectives: To explore the relationship between elevated triglyceride levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV-positive persons after adjustment for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and nonlipid risk factors. Background: Although elevated triglyceride levels are commonly noted in HIV-positive individuals, it is unclear whether they represent an independent risk factor for MI. Methods: The incidence of MI during follow-up was stratified according to the latest triglyceride level. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to describe the independent association between the latest triglyceride level and MI risk after adjusting for TC and HDL-C, nonlipids cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, HIV and treatment-related factors. Results: The 33308 persons included in the study from 1999 to 2008 experienced 580 MIs over 178835person-years. Unadjusted, the risk of MI increased by 67% [relative risk (RR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.54-1.80] per doubling in triglyceride level. After adjustment for the latest TC and HDL-C level, the RR dropped to 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.21-1.45); this effect was further attenuated by other CVD risk factors and the RR was reduced to 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.06-1.29). In models that additionally adjusted for HIV and treatment factors, the risk was further diminished, although remained significant (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23). Conclusion: Higher triglyceride levels were marginally independently associated with an increased risk of MI in HIV-positive persons, although the extent of reduction in RR after taking account of latest TC, latest HDL-C and other confounders suggests that any independent effect is small. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Worm S.W.,Copenhagen University | Kamara D.A.,University College London | Fontas E.,Nice University Hospital Center | De Wit S.,CHU Saint Pierre Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Concerns have arisen about possible effects of protease inhibitors (PIs) on cardiac conductivity. We found no significant association between current or recent PI exposure and sudden death or nonhemorrhagic stroke (adjusted rate ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval,. 95-1.57), whereas cumulative exposure to PIs was associated with an increased risk (adjusted rate ratio, 1.06 per year of exposure; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.11). © 2011 The Author. Source


Monforte A.D.,University of Milan | Ryom L.,Copenhagen University | El-Sadr W.,Columbia University | Dabis F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is any association between exposure to atazanavir (ATV), either when boosted or unboosted by ritonavir, and myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke within the D:A:D: Study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort collaboration. METHODS: Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between cumulative exposure to ATV and MI/stroke risk after adjusting for known demographic and clinical confounders, as well as cumulative and recent exposure to specific antiretroviral drugs. Follow-up started on enrolment in the study and ended at the earliest of: a new MI/stroke event, death, 6 months after last clinic visit, or 1 February 2011. RESULTS: The incidence of MI varied from 0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.30)]/100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in those with no exposure to ATV to 0.20 (0.12-0.32)/100 PYFU in those with more than 3 years exposure. There was no evidence of an association between cumulative exposure to ATV and MI risk, either in univariate [relative rate/year 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04)] or multivariable [0.95 (0.87-1.05)] analyses. The incidence of stroke was 0.17 (0.16-0.19)/100 PYFU in those with no exposure to ATV and 0.17 (0.10-0.27)/100 PYFU in those with more than 3 years exposure. As with the MI endpoint, there was no evidence of an association with ATV exposure in either univariate [1.02 (0.98-1.05)] or multivariable [0.95 (0.87-1.05)] analyses. CONCLUSION: These results argue against a class-wide association between exposure to HIV protease inhibitors and the risk of cardio/cerebrovascular events. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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