Saint Petersburg, Russia

ITMO University , former Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, abbreviated as SPbNRU ITMO, is a Russian technical university located in St. Petersburg, Russia. It trains specialists in cutting-edge technologies directed at science and technical development. The university is awarded a National Research University category in 2009. It belongs to the list of top 15 Russian universities included in the government program of improving international competitiveness among leading research and educational centers.Today, ITMO University has over 13,000 students, 30 academic departments and about 1000 teaching staff. The main university campus is on Kronverkskiy Prospect, 49.University scientific interests are concentrated in the fields of information technologies, photonics and optics. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: Scientists from the Netherlands and Russia designed and tested a new metasurface-based technology for enhancing the local sensitivity of MRI scanners on humans for the first time. The metasurface consists of thin resonant strips arranged periodically. Placed under a patient's head, it provided much higher signals from the local brain region. The results published in Scientific Reports, show that the use of metasurfaces can potentially reduce image acquisition time, thus improving comfort for patients, or acquire higher resolution images for better disease diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used medical technique for examination of internal organs, which can provide, for example, information on structural and functional damage in neurological, cardiovascular, in musculoskeletal conditions, as well as playing a major role in oncology. However, due to its intrinsically lower signal-to-noise ratio, an MRI scan takes much longer to acquire than a computed tomography or ultrasound scan. This means that a patient must lie motionless within a confined apparatus for up to an hour, resulting in significant patient discomfort, and relatively long lines in hospitals. Specialists from Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands and ITMO University in Russia for the first time have acquired human MR-images with enhanced local sensitivity provided by a thin metasurface - a periodic structure of conducting copper strips. The researchers attached these elements to a thin flexible substrate and integrate them with close-fitting receive coil arrays inside the MRI scanner. "We placed such a metasurface under the patient's head, after that the local sensitivity increased by 50%. This allowed us to obtain higher image and spectroscopic signals from the occipital cortex. Such devices could potentially reduce the duration of MRI studies and improve its comfort for subjects", says Rita Schmidt, the first author of the paper and researcher at the Department of Radiology of Leiden University Medical Center. The metasurface, placed between a patient and the receive coils, enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in the region of interest. "This ratio limits the MRI sensitivity and duration of the procedure", notes Alexey Slobozhanyuk, research fellow at the Department of Nanophotonics and Metamaterials of ITMO University. "Often the scans must be repeated many times and the signals added together. Using this metasurface reduces this requirement. Conventionally, if now an examination takes twenty minutes, it may only need ten in the future. If today hospitals serve ten patients a day, they will be able to serve twenty with our development." Alternatively, according to the scientists, the metasurface could be used to increase the image resolution. "The size of voxels, or 3D-pixels, is also limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. Instead of accelerating the procedure, we can adopt an alternative approach and acquire more detailed images", says Andrew Webb, the leader of the project, professor of Radiology at Leiden University Medical Center. Until now, no one has shown integration of metamaterials into close-fitting receive arrays because their dimensions were much too large. The novel ultra-thin design of the metasurface helped to solve this issue. "Our technology can be applied for producing metamaterial-inspired ultra-thin devices for many different types of MRI scans, but in each case, one should firstly carry out a series of computer simulations as we have done in this work. One needs to make sure that the metasurface is appropriately coupled", concludes Rita Schmidt. About ITMO University ITMO University (Saint Petersburg) is a national research university, the leading Russian university in the field of information and photonic technologies. The university is the alma mater of winners of numerous international programming competitions: ACM ICPC (the only six-time world champions), Google Code Jam, Facebook Hacker Cup, Yandex Algorithm, Russian Code Cup, Topcoder Open etc. Priority research areas: IT, photonic technologies, robotics, quantum communication, translational medicine, urban studies, art&science, and science communication. Starting from 2013, the university has been a member of Project 5-100, which unites top Russian universities to improve their status in the international research and education arena. In 2016 ITMO University became 56th among the world's top universities in Computer Science, according to the Times Higher Education ranking, and scored 3rd among Russian universities in the overall THE ranking. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | June 1, 2017
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: Russian physicists from ITMO University have found out that spherical silicon nanoparticles can be effectively heated up, and simultaneously emit light depending on their temperature. According to the scientists, these properties coupled with a good biocompatibility will allow usage of the semiconductor nanoparticles in photothermal therapy and nanosurgery. The researchers plan to control the heating of the silicon particles in the future to internally burn cancer cells without affecting healthy tissue. The results appeared in the prestigious journal Nano Letters. When carrying out photothermal therapy and nanosurgery, doctors inject nanoparticles of biocompatible metals, such as gold, into a human body, concentrate them on a tumour and irradiate them with a laser. Biological tissues are transparent for infrared light, but metal nanoparticles absorb it well and convert it into heat that burns cancer cells. However, measuring a local temperature of gold nanoparticles is an extremely difficult task that, if not properly done, could lead to overheating and damage of healthy tissue. Scientists continue searching for biocompatible substances able to heat up and simultaneously inform about their temperature. Physicists from ITMO University have found such a material in silicon. As the new study shows, resonant silicon nanoparticles are heated up even faster than golden ones due to the better resonant properties and, in contrast, can signal about their temperature by scattering light with different wavelength. Such scattering effect is known in optics as Raman scattering. Moreover, this optical response can be registered without complex devices or vacuum systems that are required to capture signals from metals. "Golden nanoparticles are widely used in photothermal therapy, photochemistry and nanosurgery. But the optical response of such agents does not give information about how much they are heated, because metals never re-emit Raman light signal. At the same time, it was known that silicon has an optical response that strongly changes with temperature. But no one imagined that a silicon nanoparticle can be used as an efficient heater, since it has significantly less optical losses than gold," says George Zograf, graduate student of Department of Nano-Photonics and Metamaterials at ITMO University. Knowing that the optical response of silicon strongly depends on temperature and this material is biocompatible, the researchers tested how effectively the nanoparticles are heated up and how accurately one can register their temperature. The researchers raised the temperature of silicon nanoparticles illuminating them with laser and recorded the emitted Raman signal, which allowed simultaneous temperature detection. Meanwhile, in contrast to the golden nanospheres, the tested silicon particles were four times more efficient in converting laser radiation into heat. This would allow changing the nanoparticles' temperature using a less powerful laser beam without heating nearby healthy tissue. The researchers believe that the semiconductor nanoparticles can be a cheaper and safer alternative to metal. "In the future, one will be able to kill cancer cells with high precision by heating them with the help of such nanosystems. The real-time optical control of their temperature will prevent healthy cells from uncontrolled overheating," concludes Sergey Makarov, senior researcher of Department of Nanophotonics and Metamaterials at ITMO University. About ITMO University ITMO University (Saint Petersburg) is a national research university, the leading Russian university in the field of information and photonic technologies. The university is the alma mater of winners of numerous international programming competitions: ACM ICPC (the only seven-time world champions), Google Code Jam, Facebook Hacker Cup, Yandex Algorithm, Russian Code Cup, Topcoder Open etc. Priority research areas: IT, photonic technologies, robotics, quantum communication, translational medicine, urban studies, art&science, and science communication. Starting from 2013, the university has been a member of Project 5-100, which unites top Russian universities to improve their status in the international research and education arena. In 2016 ITMO University became 56th among the world's top universities in Computer Science, according to the Times Higher Education ranking, and scored 3rd among Russian universities in the overall THE ranking. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2009.1.6 | Award Amount: 883.39K | Year: 2010

The objective of the MyFIRE project is\n-\tthe multidisciplinary networking of research communities addressing both technological, socio-economical and environmental aspects of the Future Internet\n-\tthe coordination of research experience and user-driven open innovation activities establishing common concepts, roadmaps, methodologies and tools, based on standardised approaches.\nMyFIRE project develops the efficient mechanisms of test beds process to make it more effective and used. MyFIRE identifies the user communities and their needs for improving research value of the huge investments in FIRE testbeds.\nMyFIRE develops a unique and new approach addressing the optimisation, the design, the set up and the use of the experimental test facilities by increasing awareness on economic data and technical related best practices\nThe MyFIRE project will apply a methodology known and successfully used by its partners in previous support projects. The approach is to create a supportive environment, which enables key stakeholders to focus on the central question, develop consensus and collectively develop and agree on best practices for testing facilities across the scientific community.\nMyFIRE project will create an environment providing the awareness for the efficient development of experimental facilities in Europe in collaboration with international partners, especially in the BRIC countries. This will reflect the balance between the requirements for strong collaboration and the stakeholders expectations thus achieving the good experimental activities to develop the sustainable testing methodologies able to contribute to European standards development. The framework will be developing through the creation of open dialogue between the ICT networking research communities and experts from key areas of sociology, policy making, economic models and standardisation.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.5.6 | Award Amount: 752.51K | Year: 2011

eGovPoliNet sets up an international community in ICT solutions for governance and policy modelling. The international community of researchers and practitioners will share and advance research and insights from practical cases around the world. To achieve this, eGovPoliNet will build on experiences accumulated by leading actors bringing together the innovative knowledge of the field. Capabilities, tools and methods brought forward by academia, ICT industry, highly specialised policy consulting firms, and policy operators and governance experts from governments will be investigated and collected in an international knowledge base. Comparative analyses and descriptions of cases, tools and scientific approaches will complement this knowledge base. Therewith, the currently existing fragmentation across disciplines will be overcome.Functions of eGovPoliNet towards community building, RTD monitoring and comparative analysis will mainly be conducted in an internet-based participatory manner, complemented with regular physical meetings attached to conferences. Community building of experts from academia, industry and public organizations, and other interested stakeholders will be supported by a community portal for knowledge sharing, collaboration, dissemination, and multidisciplinary constituency building in an open environment. eGovPoliNet expertise covers a wide range of aspects for social and professional networking and multidisciplinary constituency building along the axes of technology, participative processes, governance, policy modelling, social simulation and visualisation. Regular physical and virtual meetings with off- and online discussions and comparative studies will contribute to capacity building of the community.Through sharing of approaches and exposing them to the communitys discussions, eGovPoliNet will advance the way research, development and practice is performed worldwide in using ICT solutions for governance and policy modelling.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.3.5 | Award Amount: 663.87K | Year: 2011

Optical Design and Simulation have a tremendous potential to facilitate disruptive research and product innovation. Since optical systems are key components in a broad range of modern devices, optical design plays an essential role in the technology of the XXI-st century. To support European small and medium enterprises in gaining and keeping a leading position in optics and photonics, we propose the support action called ?SME?s Training and Hands-on Practice in Optical Design and Simulation? (SMETHODS). The European consortium offering SMETHODS consists of 7 partners that are the most prominent academic institutions in optics in their countries. Through fully integrated collaborative training sessions, the consortium will provide professional assistance as well as hands-on training in a variety of design tasks on imaging optics, non-imaging optics, wave optics and diffraction optics. For each of these four training domains, 5-day training sessions will be given by several instructors from the consortium partners and by external speakers from industry. Nowadays there exists a strong demand for this kind of support action. Large companies have the resources to organize the necessary training courses internally, but SME?s lack such abilities. In the absence of systematic trainings such as SMETHODS, SME engineers often have to improve their professional abilities with less efficient autodidactic means. This training, which is unique in Europe, will fill the gap between academic courses given at universities and training activities provided by software producers that are focused on specific design software. In the first phase, SMETHODS will provide support activities to SMEs, researchers and companies during 30 months of EC financial support. During this period SMETHODS will, based on experience gained,consider how SMETHODS can continue to serve and support its users after EC funding has stopped.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.19M | Year: 2013

There is a severe shortage in the European photonics industry of graduates and PhDs with broad expertise in modelling and design of industrially relevant optical systems and components. This shortage is aggravated because most applied design methodologies are strongly based on previous experience of the designer. In general, these methods also have a limited efficiency because they heavily rely on trial and error. The project has therefore two objectives of equal importance: 1. The development of disruptive new optical design tools that are broadly applicable to optical design problems and that significantly increase design productivity and efficiency; 2. Advanced training through research and hands-on practice of highly skilled optical scientists given by leading European universities and European optical industries. European academic and industrial partners that are leading in the research on new optical design methodologies and in designing advanced optical systems and components for modern industrial applications will work together in ADOPSYS. We will develop for the inverse problem of optical design new strategies that reduce the amount of human trial-and-error effort significantly, and will apply them to a wide variety of industrially relevant design problems including energy efficient lighting systems, high resolution systems and machine vision, inspection and safety. The ADOPSYS partners together cover the complete modern field of optical modelling and design and its applications, a coverage which no single European group or institute can provide alone. Therefore, the ADOPSYS team is ideally prepared for high level education and training during collaborative multi-disciplinary research, research workshops in optical modelling and design, trainings in transferable skills and on-the-job training during secondments provided by the industrial partners, so that the ESR fellows will be optimally prepared for a successful career as optical scientists.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.5.4 | Award Amount: 3.43M | Year: 2013

The main goal of the project is to develop a research prototype of an easy-to-use, highly visual and intuitive tool for social networks and e-participation platforms, called the Policy Compass, enabling citizens and public officials to easily create, apply, share, embed, annotate and discuss causal models, charts and graphs of historical data from trusted open data sources. The aim is to develop methods and tools that facilitate more factual, evidence-based, transparent and accountable policy evaluation and analysis.\nThe research question we want to address in the Policy Compass project is whether and how open public data, social media, e-participation platforms, fuzzy cognitive maps and argumentation technology can be integrated and applied to provide better tools on the World-Wide Web for constructing, sharing, visualising and debating progress metrics and causal models of policies.\nThe Policy Compass will make better use of Europes open public data resources and empower policy-makers and citizens (especially the younger generation) to better assess government policies in the policy analysis and monitoring phases of the policy cycle.


Poddubny A.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute | Iorsh I.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute | Belov P.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics | Kivshar Y.,Australian National University
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013

Electromagnetic metamaterials, artificial media created by subwavelength structuring, are useful for engineering electromagnetic space and controlling light propagation. Such materials exhibit many unusual properties that are rarely or never observed in nature. They can be employed to realize useful functionalities in emerging metadevices based on light. Here, we review hyperbolic metamaterials-one of the most unusual classes of electromagnetic metamaterials. They display hyperbolic (or indefinite) dispersion, which originates from one of the principal components of their electric or magnetic effective tensor having the opposite sign to the other two principal components. Such anisotropic structured materials exhibit distinctive properties, including strong enhancement of spontaneous emission, diverging density of states, negative refraction and enhanced superlensing effects. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Noskov R.E.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics | Belov P.A.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics | Kivshar Y.S.,Australian National University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We study modulational instability in nonlinear arrays of subwavelength metallic nanoparticles and analyze numerically nonlinear scenarios of the instability development. We demonstrate that modulational instability can lead to the formation of regular periodic or quasiperiodic modulations of the polarization. We reveal that such nonlinear nanoparticle arrays can support long-lived standing and moving oscillating nonlinear localized modes-plasmon oscillons. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Polotsky A.A.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2014

The adsorption of a periodic heteropolymer onto a periodic heterogeneous surface is studied using the two-dimensional partially directed walk model of the polymer. We show how the generating function approach developed by Polotsky (2012 J. Phys A: Math. Theor. 45 425004) for the adsorption of a random copolymer onto a random surface can be extended to the case of an arbitrary periodic heteropolymer and a chemically heterogeneous surface: the main equation remains unchanged and the transition probability matrices acquire the special form of circulant matrices of a dimension equal to the corresponding sequence and surface periods, while the particular structure of periods in the polymer and on the surface is encoded in the diagonal 'interaction matrix'. The developed approach is applied to study the adsorption of a symmetric multiblock copolymer onto a symmetric multiblock two-letter surface. Analysis of the adsorption transition point dependence on polymer and surface block sizes and different sets of polymer-surface interaction parameters reveals interesting 'odd-even' and 'recognition' effects. Beyond the transition point, temperature dependences of the main conformational and thermodynamic characteristics demonstrate that adsorption can occur as a two-stage process, where binding of the polymer chain to the surface is followed by 'tuning' the chain conformations in order to maximize the number of energetically favourable contacts. The two-stage adsorption is characterized by the appearance of the maximum on the heat capacity curves. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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