Saint Petersburg, Russia

Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University is a major Russian technical university situated in Saint Petersburg. Other former names included Peter the Great Polytechnic Institute and Kalinin Polytechnic Institute . The university is considered to be one of the top research facilities in Russian Federation and CIS member states and is a leading educational facility in the field of applied physics and mathematics, industrial engineering, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering and many other academic disciplines. On a national scale, SPbPU in Russian Federation is somewhat akin to Caltech in the United States . Currently SPbPU is ranked among the top 400 in the World. It houses one of the country's most advanced research labs in hydro–aerodynamics. University's alumni include famous Nobel Prize winners, such as Pyotr Kapitsa, prominent nuclear physicists and atomic weapon designers such as , world-class aircraft designers and aerospace engineers, such as . The university offers academic programs to Bachelor, Master's and Doctorate degree levels. SPbSPU consists of structural units called Institutes divided into three categories:Engineering InstitutesPhysical InstitutesEconomics and Humanities Institutes↑ Wikipedia.

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Skipetrov S.E.,CNRS Physics and Models in Condensed Media Laboratory | Sokolov I.M.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

As discovered by Philip Anderson in 1958, strong disorder can block propagation of waves and lead to the localization of wavelike excitations in space. Anderson localization of light is particularly exciting in view of its possible applications for random lasing or quantum information processing. We show that, surprisingly, Anderson localization of light cannot be achieved in a random three-dimensional ensemble of point scattering centers that is the simplest and widespread model to study the multiple scattering of waves. Localization is recovered if the vector character of light is neglected. This shows that, at least for point scatterers, the polarization of light plays an important role in the Anderson localization problem. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Yerokhin V.A.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

The nuclear-size effect on the one-loop self-energy and vacuum polarization is evaluated for the 1s, 2s, 3s, 2p 1/2, and 2p 3/2 states of hydrogen-like ions. The calculation is performed to all orders in the nuclear binding strength parameter Zα. Detailed comparison is made with previous all-order calculations and calculations based on the expansion in the parameter Zα. Extrapolation of the all-order numerical results obtained toward Z=1 provides results for the radiative nuclear-size effect on the hydrogen Lamb shift. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Kim M.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Molecular Neurodegeneration | Year: 2014

Background: Polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion within coding sequence of a soluble protein is responsible for eight autosomal-dominant genetic neurodegenerative disorders. These disorders affect cerebellum, striatum, basal ganglia and other brain regions. The pathogenic polyQ-expansion threshold in these proteins varies from 32Q to 54Q. Understanding the reasons for variability in pathogenic polyQ threshold may provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms responsible for development of these disorders. Findings: Here we established a quantitative correlation between the polarity of the flanking sequences and pathogenic polyQ-expansion threshold in this protein family. We introduced an "edge polarity index" (EPI) to quantify polarity effects of the flanking regions and established a strong correlation between EPI index and critical polyQ expansion length in this protein family. Based on this analysis we subdivided polyQ-expanded proteins into 2 groups - with strong and weak dependence of polyQ threshold on EPI index. The main difference between members of the first and the second group is a polarity profile of these proteins outside of polyQ and flanking regions. PolyQ proteins are known substrates for proteasome and most likely mechanistic explanation for the observed correlation is that proteasome may have an impaired ability to process continuous non-polar regions of proteins. Conclusions: The proposed hypothesis provides a quantitative explanation for variability in pathogenic threshold among polyQ-expansion disorders, which we established to correlate with polarity of flanking regions. To explain these results we propose that proteasome is not efficient in processing continuous non-polar regions of proteins, resulting in release of undigested and partially digested fragments. If supported experimentally, our hypothesis may have wide implications for further understanding the pathogensis of polyglutamine expansion disorders.

Pachucki K.,University of Warsaw | Yerokhin V.A.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We report a calculation of the fine-structure splitting in light heliumlike atoms, which accounts for all quantum electrodynamical effects up to order α5Ry. For the helium atom, we resolve the previously reported disagreement between theory and experiment and determine the fine-structure constant with an accuracy of 31ppb. The calculational results are extensively checked by comparison with the experimental data for different nuclear charges and by evaluation of the hydrogenic limit of individual corrections. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Ovid'ko I.A.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Reviews on Advanced Materials Science | Year: 2014

This paper presents an overview of research efforts focused on both fabrication and mechanical properties of metal-matrix nanocomposites containing graphene inclusions. A particular attention is devoted to experimental data giving evidence for enhancement of strength, microhardness and Young modulus (due to the effects of graphene inclusions) of such nanocomposites, as compared to both unreinforced metals and metal-matrix nanocomposites reinforced by non-graphene inclusions. Key factors are discussed which influence the role of graphene nanosheets and nanoplatelets in remarkable enhancement of the mechanical characteristics of metal-graphene nanocomposites. © 2014 Advanced Study Center Co. Ltd.

Murgul V.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Journal of Applied Engineering Science | Year: 2014

In most European countries, including Russia, the requirements for building heat insulation are increasingly stringent. Historic buildings have become "energy inefficient" in terms of walling thermal upgrading aimed at reduced energy consumption. However, unlike the mass series of buildings, the historic ones are of cultural and architectural value. The energy efficient upgrade must not result in the lost of their historical authenticity. The article questions the applicability of existing standards for the thermal insulation of historic buildings, in particular, the "pros" and "cons" of walling thermal insulation. It discusses the need to preserve the exterior of the buildings that are monuments of history and culture as well as the historically-formed construction system. It puts forward the idea of improving the quality of indoor climate in residential buildings instead of energy savings at all costs.

Trifonov P.V.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010

A novel algorithm is proposed for the interpolation step of the Guruswami-Sudan list decoding algorithm. The proposed method is based on the binary exponentiation algorithm, and can be considered as an extension of the Lee-O'Sullivan method. The algorithm is shown to achieve both asymptotical and practical performance gain compared to the case of iterative interpolation algorithm. Further complexity reduction is achieved by employing the reencoding transformation. The key contribution of the paper, which enables the complexity reduction, is a novel randomized ideal multiplication algorithm. © 2010 IEEE.

Bobylev N.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2016

Use of Urban Underground Space (UUS) has been growing significantly in the world's biggest and wealthiest cities. UUS has been long acknowledged to be important to the urban development agenda: sustainability, resilience, livability, and creating a better urban environment in particular. These issues are traditionally monitored using urban indicators, however UUS has not been properly included and considered in urban indicator lists (sets or systems) yet - the gap this paper is aiming to bridge. The paper reviews existing approaches to the composition of urban indicator lists, highlighting indicator types, challenges related to data collection, and agencies that are concerned with the issue. Further the paper has identified the importance of UUS inclusion in the lists that give integrated assessment and monitor urban sustainability, resilience, climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as progress towards smart, livable, and compact cities. Existing global quantitative data on UUS have been examined in 8 cities; and three key indicators (descriptors) were suggested to monitor UUS use: Developed UUS volume (m3); UUS use density (m3/m2); and Developed UUS volume per person (m3/person). Current average UUS use densities in cities are identified as up to about 0.05 (m3/m2) (which can be interpreted as a virtual depth of UUS use of 5 cm), and the developed UUS volume per person is up to about 10 m3/person; while city central areas (central business districts) can have a virtual depth of developed UUS of several metres (m3/m2). Compatibility, comparability, uniformity, and sustained monitoring of urban indicators data (including UUS indicators) found to be posing significant challenges to the research across geographies, and industry/economic sectors. © 2015 The Author.

Baiko D.A.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2011

The shear modulus of solid neutron star crust is calculated by the thermodynamic perturbation theory, taking into account ion motion. At a given density, the crust is modelled as a body-centred cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with a uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures, the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative ∝T contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behaviour is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for lighter elements at higher densities, where the ion plasma temperature is not entirely negligible compared to the typical Coulomb ion interaction energy. The results of numerical calculations are approximated by convenient fitting formulae. They should be used for precise neutron star oscillation modelling, a rapidly developing branch of stellar seismology. © 2011 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.

Evarestov R.A.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Phonon frequencies at the Γ, X, M, and R points of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in the cubic phase of Ba(Ti,Zr,Hf)O3 were calculated by the frozen phonon method using density functional theory with the hybrid exchange correlation functional PBE0. The calculations use linear combination of atomic orbitals basis functions as implemented in the crystal09 computer code. The Powell algorithm was applied for basis-set optimization. In agreement with experimental observations, the structural instability via soft modes was found only in BaTiO3. A good quantitative agreement was found between the theoretical and experimental phonon frequency predictions in BaTiO3 and BaZrO3. It is concluded that the hybrid PBE0 functional is able to predict correctly the structural stability and phonon properties in perovskites under consideration. The symmetry of phonons for nonzero k vector (X, M, and R points of the BZ) is given for each calculated phonon frequency, and it will be useful for future comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data on neutron scattering (such data are absent at present). © 2011 American Physical Society.

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