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Saint Petersburg, Russia

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University , formerly known as St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy is the first in the world and the only medical school in Russia providing higher medical education with a specialization in Pediatrics.The University is located in Saint Petersburg, which is a unique city with beautiful European architecture and rich history.SPbSPMA has a state license and accreditation to provide training in medicine according to the state standards.In June 2005, under the support of Government of Russia, State Duma, Federation Council of Russia, Russian Rector's Union, the prize-winners of Golden Medal: European Quality competition in the nomination of Top 100 of Russian Universities were awarded. Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy was honored with a golden medal. Rector of the academy Vladimir Levanovich was named The Best Rector of The Year 2004.There are four programs in the academy, leading to the Doctor of Medicine with a specialization in Pediatrics, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dental Medicine, and Master in Clinical Psychology degrees. Postgraduate training, providing the opportunity to get a PhD, is also available. Wikipedia.


Stolyarova M.V.,Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy
Cell and Tissue Biology | Year: 2011

The epithelium of the hepatic region of the intestine in Saccoglossus mereschkowskii, a representative of enteropneusts (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata), a group located at the base of Chordata, has been studied by using electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of ciliated and granular epithelial cells, elements of the intraepithelial nerve layer, and intercellular junctions are characterized. The data on the details of the structure of the ciliary apparatus and the system of ciliary rootlets are presented. Justification is provided for the presence of a complicated construction in the ciliated cells, a supportive carcass of cilia that performs a mechanical stabilizing function, and possibly the synchronization of the ciliary movement. The existence of cilia with two centrioles is considered as adaptation to the high functional load on the ciliary apparatus. Well-developed bundles of myofilaments have been revealed in the cytoplasm of the basal parts of ciliated cells, which characterizes these cells as epitheliomuscular. Peculiarities indicating the role of ciliated cells in absorption are described, as well as the capability of these cells for balloon-like secretion. Data are presented on the accumulation of reserved nutritional substances in the cell cytoplasm in the form of lipids and glycogen. With respect to their function, ciliated cells are determined as the ciliated secretory-absorptive epitheliomuscular cells. The location of secretory granules in both apical and basal parts of granular cells indicates the exocrine-endocrine function of these cells. There are no typical endocrine cells in the intestinal epithelium of S. mereschkowskii. Several types of granules are described in the cytoplasm of nerve fibers. Junctions between nerve fibers and basal parts of ciliated and granular epithelial cells have been revealed; the neural regulation of the contractile and secretory functions of epithelial cells is assumed. The intestinal epithelium of enteropneusts is presumed to contain a regulatory neuroendocrine system composed of receptor cells of the open type, secretory endocrine-like cells, and of nerve elements of the nervous layer. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Gorbunova V.N.,Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy
Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research | Year: 2011

Genetic components are involved in the etiology of the overwhelming majority of the most common complex human diseases. Three methodological approaches have been used successfully for the identification of genetic factors predisposed to common human diseases: linkage analysis, candidate gene association studies (GASs), and genome-wide association scans (GWASs). The structural features of many genes make a small but significant contribution to the overall risk of common diseases. Syntropy of related diseases is determined by the participation in their pathogenesis of the functional polymorphisms of genes controlling the same metabolic pathways. Nonrandom combination of different diseases in the same patients is determined by common epigenetic mechanisms in expression control of different "gene nets." © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Background. Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results. 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion. Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents had been conceived as trisomics. Female-specific trisomy rescue and genetic predisposition to postzygotic non-disjunction has been suggested as mechanisms of formation of both GM and somatic mosaicism. Typical male preponderance in affected non mosaic offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted trisomy 21, indicates than meiotic events are not responsible for the skewed sex ratio in DS. However a female excess among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM might be the result of meiotic non homologous co-orientation of chromosomes 21 and X in spermatogenesis. © 2010 Kovaleva; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Stolyarova M.V.,Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy
Tsitologiya | Year: 2011

Epithelium of the hepatic region of the intestine in Saccoglossus mereschkowskii, a representative of enteropneusts (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata) standing at the base of Chordata, has been investigated using electron microscope. The ultrastructure of ciliated and granular epithelial cells, elements of the intraepithelial nerve layer, and intercellular junctions have been characterized. The data concerning details of the organization of the ciliary apparatus and rootlets system are presented. It is justified the presence of complicated supporting construction of cilia which performs a mechanical stabilizing function and possibly also provide synchronization of ciliary movements. The presence of cilia with two centrioles is considered as an adaptation to high functional load on ciliary apparatus. Well developed bundles of myofilaments are found in the cytoplasm of the basal portions of ciliary cells that characterizes these cells as myoepithelial. The features indicating the role of ciliary cells in absorption are described. The capability of these cells to balloon-like secretion is considered. Data on the accumulation of food reserves in the form of lipid droplets and glycogen in the cell cytoplasm are presented. Ciliated cells are characterized by their function as ciliated secretory-absorptive myoepithelial cells. Based on the location of secretory granules both in the apical and basal portions of granular cells, an exocrine-endocrøine function of these cells has been suggested. Typical endocrine cells in the intestinal epithelium of S. mereschkowskii are absent. Several types of granules in the nerve fibers cytoplasm are described. Junctions between the nerve fibers and basal portions of ciliary and granular epithelial cells are found. Nerve regulation of contractile and secretory functions of epithelial cells is supposed. The presence of the regulatory nerve-endocrine system that includes receptor cells of open type, secretory endocrine-like cells and nerve elements of nerve layer is supposed in the intestinal epithelium of enteropneusts.


Shiryajev Y.N.,Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Oesophageal replacement in patients following distal gastrectomy (DGE) remains a surgical challenge, and the standard option is the colonic or jejunal transplant. However, in some cases, it is possible (or mandatory) to utilize the remnant stomach for oesophagoplasty (EP). This method preserves some advantages of the gastric EP in comparison with the bowel EP. During recent years, several papers have been published in English regarding remnant stomach EP, and different aspects of this procedure have been discussed. However, there is still no comprehensive literature review analysing the possible EP approaches using the remnant stomach. A multilingual literature search (database and manual) to collect and classify the currently available data regarding remnant stomach EP following DGE and its subsequent analysis was carried out. There are a number of principally different methods of a remnant stomach EP: (1) mobilization of the remnant stomach with the spleen and tail of the pancreas with its transposition into the left hemithorax; (2) mobilization of the remnant stomach after splenectomy; (3) implementation of a reversed gastric tube, tailored from the major curve; (4) the use of a transplant fed from the right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries; (5) the use of a transplant fed from the left gastric and short gastric arteries; (6) complete mobilization of the remnant stomach; (7) direct revascularization of the gastric stump conduit. The excellent plastic potential and rich vascularization of the stomach justify its use for EP, even after prior DGE. The majority of the methods of gastric stump EP are less well developed but should be investigated further.

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