Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg State Medical Academy Named After Ii Mechnikov | Djachuk G.I.,Saint Petersburg State Medical Academy Named After Ii Mechnikov | Sergeev D.V.,Saint Petersburg State Medical Academy Named After Ii Mechnikov | Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | And 3 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2011

The hepatoprotective effect of birch bark extract (BBE) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) was studied. Forty-two patients with serologically confirmed chronic hepatitis C were treated for 12 weeks with 160 mg standardized BBE per day. The primary outcome parameter measured was the rate of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization after 12 weeks. Secondary parameters included the course of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, quantitative HCV RNA levels, subjective symptoms associated with CHC (fatigue, abdominal discomfort, depression, and dyspepsia), safety and compliance. The qualitative-quantitative analysis of BBE was made using high performance liquid chromatography to confirm the presence of 75% betulin and 3.5% betulinic acid. Significant differences in the mean ALT and HCV RNA levels were observed after 12 weeks of treatment. The level of ALT was decreased in 54.0% and normalized (p = 0.046). HCV RNA was reduced in 43.2% (p = 0.016). After 12 weeks of treatment, reports of fatigue and abdominal discomfort were reduced by 6-fold (p = 0.028) and 3-fold (p = 0.05), respectively. Dyspepsia was no longer reported (p = 0.042) and the effect was significantly different from baseline. Because this study lacks a control group clinical relevance of the data can only be estimated in future by following controlled clinical trials. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena and Preclinical R&D
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology | Year: 2015

Acute bronchitis (AB) is a common lung condition characterized by inflammation of the large bronchi in response to infection. Bronchipret() syrup (BRO), a fixed combination of thyme and ivy extracts has been effectively used for the treatment of AB. Combining in vivo and mechanistic in vitro studies we aimed to provide a better understanding of the therapeutic potential of BRO on key aspects of AB and to identify potential mechanisms of action.Bronchoalveolitis in rats was induced by intratracheal LPS instillation. BRO was administered p.o. once daily at 1- to 10-fold equivalents of the human daily dose. Animals were sacrificed 24-72h post LPS challenge to analyze leukocyte numbers in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood as well as goblet cells in bronchial epithelium. Inhibitory effects of BRO analogue on leukotriene (LT) production were determined in human neutrophils and monocytes as well as on isolated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO).BRO significantly reversed the LPS-induced increase in leukocyte numbers in lung tissue, BALF and blood as well as goblet cell numbers in bronchial epithelium. In vitro, BRO analogue suppressed cellular release of LTB4 (IC50=36gml(-1)) and cysLT (IC50=10gml(-1)) and inhibited the activity of isolated 5-LO (IC50=19gml(-1)).BRO exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in LPS-induced bronchoalveolitis in vivo potentially via interference with 5-LO/LT signaling. These effects may contribute to its observed clinical efficacy in AB.


Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Ossipov V.I.,University of Turku | Martiskainen O.,University of Turku | Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with off-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) resulted in the successful fractionation, separation and identification of spinochrome pigments from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Two fractions of pigments were separated by TLC and eluted with methanol using a TLC-MS interface. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the fractions indicated the presence of six sea urchin pigments: spinochrome monomers B and D, three spinochrome dimers (anhydroethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin) and its isomer and ethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin)), and one pigment that was preliminary identified as a spinochrome dimer with the structural formula C 22H 16O 16. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarova M.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Damien Dorman H.J.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2010

The adaptogenic effect of Bergenia crassifolia black and fermented leaves was examined based on the forced swimming capacity and the change of biochemical parameters in mice. The treatment groups were orally administered infusions of black and fermented leaves of 3 populations of B. crassifolia, while the control group received distilled water for 7 days. Infusions from black leaves of B. crassifolia insignificantly enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice by increasing fat utilization, and by delaying the accumulation of plasma lactate while infusions from fermented leaves of B. crassifolia significantly enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice without change of the body weight by increasing glucose utilization and decreasing lactate level compared to the control group. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarova M.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Ivanova S.A.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | And 6 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2013

This study was undertaken to evaluate possible antiallergic effects of an extract of pigments from green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Effects were studied on animal models - guinea pig ileum contraction, rabbit eyes allergic conjunctivitis, and rabbit local skin irritation. The extract significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the histamine-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum with ID50 = 1.2 μg/mL (in equivalents of spinochrome B), had an inhibitory effect on the model of ocular allergic inflammation surpassing the reference drug olopatadine, and did not show any irritating effect in rabbits. The extract predominantly contained polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone which would be responsible for the pharmacological activity. The active compounds of the extract were evaluated in silico with molecular docking. Molecular docking into H1R receptor structures obtained from molecular dynamic simulations showed that all spinochrome derivatives bind to the receptor active site, but spinochrome monomers fit better to it. The results of the present study suggest possibilities for the development of new agents for treating allergic diseases on the base of pigments from sea urchins shells. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarov V.G.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy
Phytomedicine | Year: 2016

Purpose Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. Methods The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library.ru, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Results A. elata is often considered an example of a medicinal plant used in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese traditional medicine. However, the contemporary applications of Aralia in officinal medicine result primarily from a large number of pharmacological and clinical investigations carried out in the former USSR in the mid-20th century. Since the 1950s, medicinal preparations from radices of A. elata and radices of A. mandshurica have secured an established position within Russian/USSR medicine as evidenced by the inclusion of the drug in recent editions of the National Pharmacopoeia of the USSR and in the Register of Medicinal Preparations of Russia. Pharmacological studies on animals have shown that Aralia increases physical working capacity and affords a stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including cold stress, immobilization, UV irradiation, and low air pressure. The phytoadaptogen exerts an effect on the central nervous, reproductive, immune, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems; the metabolic syndrome including hypolipidemic and antidiabetic effects; and blood coagulation. Together with general properties of adaptogens, Aralia has its own specificity, which manifests in cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic activities. Studies on isolated organs, cells, and enzymes have revealed that Aralia preparations exhibit antioxidant activities and enhance sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity, inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis markers (GRP78, CHOP, Caspase-12, and JNK), and increase phosphorylation of STAT3 and Bcl2/Bax ratio; they also show cytotoxic activities against some tumor cell lines; affect NF-κB and PPARs activities; and regulate biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related protein expression, tissue respiration, and oxygen consumption. In healthy subjects, Aralia increases mental performance, working capacity, and endurance of movement. Numerous clinical trials have shown the efficiency of Aralia preparations in patients with traumatic brain injury (accompanied with asthenic syndrome and neurotic reactions, depression, neurasthenia, and psychasthenia), neurological diseases (accompanied with astheno-depressive and astheno-hypochondriasis syndromes), myasthenia syndrome (accompanied with chronic post-influenza arachnoiditis), and arterial hypotension. Aralia tincture and “Saparal” are useful as antiviral remedies. Radioprotective properties of Aralia have been reported in pregnant women. Synergistic antiobesity effect was reported for the combination of A. mandshurica and Engelhardtia chrysolepis extracts and antidiabetic effect for the combination of Aralia and glipizide. Promising stress-relieving effects of Aralia are reported for professionals whose work requires a high level of attention. Its proposed ability to moderate stress-induced damage and dysfunction in the cardiovascular tissue might make Aralia the adaptogen of choice among patients with higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. Because Aralia extract administration appears to affect plasma glucose level and hepatic lipid accumulation and ameliorate hyperinsulinemia, it might also provide benefits and be the adaptogen of choice for patients with obesity and diabetes. Conclusion This review describes the considerable diversity of pharmacological effects of A. elata reported in numerous studies carried out in the former USSR and other countries, which have been confirmed over >47 years of use of the plant as an official medicinal remedy. The knowledge discussed in this review can be applied to the expansion of the use of this high-value plant in the pharmacotherapy of European and other countries and for the further discovery of new drugs based on the secondary metabolites of this plant. Modern approaches in mechanisms of action, including a study of gene expression profiling, suggest the most up-to-date challenges for the future research of Aralia. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH


Shikov A.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Ivanova S.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarov V.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC | Year: 2010

A selective and simplest possible high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method for quantification of oenothein B on the basis of the free gallic acid and total gallic acid content after acid hydrolysis has been developed and used for analysis of cultivated Epilobium angustifolium. HPTLC of aqueous extracts of E. angustifolium was performed on silica gel with benzene-methanol-acetic acid 90:16:8 (v/v), as mobile phase. Quantitative evaluation of the plate was performed at 570 nm after derivatization with 1% ethanolic FeCl3 solution. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Average recovery of the active ingredient from the samples was in the range 95.43-104.57%. The calibration plots were linear in the range 440-2200 ng per band. The technique was used, for the first time, for estimation of the oenothein B content of cultivated E. angustifolium. The oenothein B content was highest at budding time (18.4-20.2 mg g-1) and decreased dramatically to 1.0 mg g-1 after flowering. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Ivanova S.A.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarov V.G.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy
Chromatographia | Year: 2013

Chromatographic separation, analysis of in situ radical-scavenging activity, and quantitative analysis of green sea urchin shell pigments were carried out by online HPTLC-DAD and HPTLC-DPPH methods. Methanol:chloroform: acetic acid:water (11:50:5:2, v/v) was selected as the best mobile phase on silica gel plates for the separation of the pigments. Two pigment spots, S1 and S2, were observed on the TLC plates, while echinochrome A was not detected in the pigment extract of green sea urchin shells. Based on the estimated ID 50 values, the antiradical activity was S2 (0.043 μg) > S1 (0.058 μg) > echinochrome A (0.134 μg). © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Demchenko D.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Shikov A.N.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarov V.G.,Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy
Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC | Year: 2011

A selective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the quantification of vitamin D3 was developed and validated for the analysis of fish oils. The fish oil samples were applied onto the HPTLC plates after saponification and purification.HPTLC of fish oils was performed on Kieselgel 60 F254 (10 cm × 10 cm) plates with chloroform-ether 9:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase. Quantitative evaluation of the plate was performed at 280 nm without derivatization. The assay provides good accuracy, reproducibility, and selectivity for the quantitative analysis of vitamin D3. The calibration plots were linear in the range 200-1000 ng per spot. The technique was used for the estimation of the vitamin D3 content of fish oils, lipid food supplements and drugs containing vitamin D3. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


PubMed | Saint Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy and Åbo Akademi University
Type: | Journal: European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics | Year: 2016

Betulin is a triterpene extracted from the cork layer of the outer bark of Betula spp. It has a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including being lung protective; however, its bioavailability is low. To increase its bioavailability, betulin was entrapped in a nanosystem (BN). In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of nanosystem-entrapped betulin after single dose endotracheal administration to rats.Betulin was nanosystem-entrapped using a solvent exchange technique. The surface morphology and size of the nanosystem were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The plasma and tissue concentrations of betulin were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method.The highest concentration of betulin was found in lungs and liver, and the lowest in the heart. Betulin did not penetrate highly vascularized tissues or tissue with an average degree of vascularization, nor did it cross the blood-brain barrier. Tissue availability in the lungs was 1.3 times higher for BN than for free betulin. Betulin was detected in the bloodstream at 15min after administration of BN compared with only at 1h after administration of free betulin. Penetration of betulin in the liver tissue was characterized by a high degree of intensity both for BN and free betulin. Betulin in the heart tissue was detected in much smaller quantities than in the liver.Entrapment of betulin in nanosystem form shows promise as a novel strategy in the treatment of pulmonary diseases.

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