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O'Brien J.L.,Saint Peters College
Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association | Year: 2011

This study explored relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and burnout in registered staff nurses working in outpatient hemodialysis settings. The sample consisted of 233 registered staff nurses. The Emotional Exhaustion Subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Conditions for Work Effectiveness II Questionnaire, and Psychological Empowerment Instrument were used to measure variables. Findings indicate that in this population of nurses, there is a significant inverse relationship between structured empowerment and burnout.

Lega L.,Saint Peters College | Contreras A.H.,Institute Terapia Cognitivo Conductual | Paredes M.T.,Pontifical Xavierian University
Acta Colombiana de Psicologia | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was the adaptation to Colombia of O'Kelly Women's Beliefs Scales (OWBS), an instrument that measures the irrational thinking on the traditional female role. The Colombian version of the scale was prepared using the reverse translation method and administered to 931 women aged between 17 and 70. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation yielded five factors that accounted for 45.57% of the total variance, based on 37 reactive with factor loadings above. 30. As in previous studies, the existence of a dominant factor that explains 30% of the variance is confirmed. The internal consistency of the scale and the derived factors was adequate, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients between.79 and 94. In general, these results establish equivalence between the Colombian version of the OWBS and the original Australian version. However, given the theoretical foundation of the scale and the magnitude of the correlation between derived factors, a grouping of items in two main factors is proposed- General irrational beliefs about the traditional female role (made up of four derived factors) and Irrational beliefs about the traditional female role in the couple (based on the remaining factor)-. This hypothetical structure should be confirmed empirically in future research.

Wang J.,Lanzhou University | Yang X.,Lanzhou University | Sun K.,Lanzhou University | Sun P.,Peking University | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes in dental enamel (morphology, elemental composition, microhardness, and roughness) after applying hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with a nonthermal plasma to bleach the teeth. Extracted human teeth were randomly placed in six groups. Two control groups (one group with no bleaching agent and no plasma treatment of the teeth and another one with only hydrogen peroxide as the bleaching agent) and four plasma groups (receiving hydrogen peroxide of varying concentrations 6% , 15%, 25%, and 35%, in conjunction with a plasma treatment) were prepared. The surface morphology before and after treatment was assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the change in the elemental composition was analyzed by an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system. A total of 36 extracted teeth were used to evaluate the change in enamel microhardness and surface roughness. The use of hydrogen peroxide as a bleaching agent, even in the absence of plasma exposure, causes various etching patterns that are attributable to demineralization during the treatment process. These patterns are more pronounced as the hydrogen peroxide concentration increases. The surface roughness tests confirmed the findings from the SEM analysis. We only found minor essentially insignificant changes in the elemental composition of the enamel and in the surface microhardness as a result of the treatment using hydrogen peroxide and a cold plasma. The use of a cold plasma in conjunction with hydrogen peroxide of varying concentrations in tooth bleaching causes minor changes in the tooth enamel changes that are comparable to those resulting from the standard treatment using 35 % hydrogen peroxide gel without a plasma. © 2012 IEEE.

Feng H.,Peking University | Wang R.,Peking University | Sun P.,Peking University | Wu H.,Peking University | And 5 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The mechanisms of eukaryotic cell response to cold plasma are studied. A series of single gene mutants of eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to compare their sensitivity to plasma treatment with the wild type. We examined 12 mutants in the oxidative stress pathway and the cell cycle pathway, in which 8 are found to be hypersensitive to plasma processing. The mutated genes' roles in the two pathways are analyzed to understand the biological response mechanisms of plasma treatment. The results demonstrate that genes from both pathways are needed for the eukaryotic cells to survive the complex plasma treatment. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Schoenbach K.H.,Old Dominion University | Zhu W.,Saint Peters College
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics | Year: 2012

Spatially confined plasmas with dimensions in the submillimeter range have been found to be stable at atmospheric pressure. These microplasmas are nonequilibrium plasmas with an electron energy distribution which contains a significant fraction of high energy electrons. This favors, in combination with the high gas density, the formation of excimers. The possibility for operating these discharges in parallel, or expanding the nonequilibrium plasma two-dimensionally on a flat cathode allows for extended area light-sources, including excimer lamps. The spectral range of these lamps reaches from the visible into the vacuum ultraviolet, down to wavelengths of 75 nm for helium excimer radiation. Highest efficiencies of 6-9% were obtained for xenon excimers when the discharge was operated dc, and 20% when operated in a nanosecond pulsed mode. Besides excimer radiation, microdischarges have also been shown to emit intense line radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet when noble gases with small admixtures of hydrogen and oxygen were used. In this paper, we discuss basic properties of several types of high-pressure microplasmas, focusing on their dc and pulsed dc operation, followed by an overview of the experimental and modeling results relevant for their use as ultraviolet light sources. The prospect of developing microplasma lamps by forming arrays of microdischarges and possibly excimer lasers by operating microdischarges in series is briefly discussed. © 2012 IEEE.

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