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Gioxari A.,Harokopio University | Kaliora A.C.,Harokopio University | Papalois A.,ELPEN Pharmaceuticals Company | Agrogiannis G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food

Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) of the Anacardiaceae family has exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in patients with Crohn's disease. This study was based on the hypothesis that mastic inhibits intestinal damage in inflammatory bowel disease, regulating inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelium. Four different dosages of P. lentiscus powder in the form of powder were administered orally to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats. Eighty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: A, control; B, colitic; C-F, colitic rats daily supplemented with P. lentiscus powder at (C) 50mg/kg, (D) 100mg/kg, (E) 200mg/kg, and (F) 300mg/kg of body weight; and G, colitic rats treated daily with cortisone (25μg/kg of body weight). Colonic damage was assessed microscopically. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and malonaldehyde were measured in colonic specimens. Results were expressed as mean±SE values. Histological amelioration of colitis (P≤.001) and significant differences in colonic indices occurred after 3 days of treatment. Daily administration of 100mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight decreased all inflammatory cytokines (P≤.05), whereas 50mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight and cortisone treatment reduced only ICAM-1 (P≤.05 and P≤.01, respectively). Malonaldehyde was significantly suppressed in all treated groups (P≤.01). IL-10 remained unchanged. Cytokines and malonaldehyde remained unaltered after 6 days of treatment. Thus P. lentiscus powder could possibly have a therapeutic role in Crohn's disease, regulating oxidant/antioxidant balance and modulating inflammation. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2011. Source

Karagianni V.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital
Revista medico-chirurgicalǎ̌ a Societǎ̌ţii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i

There is a body of evidence showing that several lifestyle and dietary factors are associated with colorectal polyps' formation; however, the magnitude of this association in diverse populations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a Greek sample. The study comprised of 52 subjects with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal polyps and 52 healthy controls. Data concerning lifestyle and dietary factors were collected using a validated questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals after adjustment for potential confounders. Physical activity level (95% CI 0.032-0.953, P = 0.044) and consumption of yoghurt (95% CI 0.969-0.996, P = 0.024), cheese (95% CI 0.932-0.996, P = 0.030), fish (95% CI 0.782-0.964, P = 0.008), vegetables (95% CI 0.965-0.998, P = 0.029), and garlic (95% CI 0.005-0.671, P = 0.022) were inversely associated with colorectal polyps. Increasing age (95% CI 1.005-1.231, P = 0.039) and central obesity (95% CI 1.001-1.019, P = 0.025) were strongly associated with their presence. Our study indicates that a cluster of modifiable risk factors have significant impact on colorectal polyps' occurrence in Greek population. Source

Turunen K.,Harokopio University | Tsouvelakidou E.,University of Ioannina | Nomikos T.,Harokopio University | Mountzouris K.C.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 3 more authors.

Beta-glucans are polysaccharides present in the cell walls of higher plants, in the seeds of some cereals, and certain yeasts and fungi also produce them. It is suggested that they exhibit, among many other health benefits, protective effects against carcinogenesis in the colon, but there is not enough human data to support this. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of barley-derived beta-glucan in the gut microbiota of polypectomized patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 125g of bread per day with beta-glucan (3g/d), or without (placebo group), for 3 months. Thirty-three polypectomized men and women (mean age 57.6 years) were recruited into the study, but only 20 completed. Subjects did not consume any probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics 2 months prior the intervention, or during the study. Stool samples were collected at baseline, on days 30 and 90 of intervention, as well as 2 weeks after the intervention, for enumeration of total aerobes and anaerobes, coliforms, E.coli, enterococci, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium perfringens, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and Candida spp. Faecal bacterial enzyme activity (beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase), pH, faecal moisture and the concentration of volatile fatty acids in the faeces were measured. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also recorded. Overall, no significant differences were observed in bacterial viable counts between the two feeding groups. Group specific analysis for β-glucan group revealed significantly decreased total coliform counts on the 30th day of the trial compared to the baseline (p=0.041). Clostridium perfringens concentration increased without reaching statistical significance, on the 30th day, while it decreased significantly on the 90th day of the intervention compared to the 30th day (p=0.016). An increase was noted in the molar ratio of acetate on the 90th day of the trial compared to placebo (p=0.018). The molar ratio of butyrate presented a trend to increase on the 30th day, which decreased (p=0.013) on the 90th day and then increase 2 weeks after the intervention (p=0.017) compared to placebo. A decrease was recorded in the β-glucan group in the bloating and abdominal pain score after the 30th day of the intervention (Day 30-37) compared to placebo. During β-glucan administration we did not observe any changes on beta-glucuronidase or beta-glucosidase activity, faecal pH, or on faecal moisture. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Triantafillidis J.K.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital | Merikas E.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital | Nikolakis D.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital | Papalois A.E.,Experimental Research Center
World Journal of Gastroenterology

Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source

Karagianni V.T.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital | Papalois A.E.,Experimental Research Center | Triantafillidis J.K.,Saint Panteleimon General Hospital
Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Cachexia, malnutrition, significant weight loss, and reduction in food intake due to anorexia represent the most important pathophysiological consequences of pancreatic cancer. Pathophysiological consequences result also from pancreatectomy, the type and severity of which differ significantly and depend on the type of the operation performed. Nutritional intervention, either parenteral or enteral, needs to be seen as a method of support in pancreatic cancer patients aiming at the maintenance of the nutritional and functional status and the prevention or attenuation of cachexia. Oral nutrition could reduce complications while restoring quality of life. Enteral nutrition in the post-operative period could also reduce infective complications. The evidence for immune-enhanced feed in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer is supported by the available clinical data. Nutritional support during the post-operative period on a cyclical basis is preferred because it is associated with low incidence of gastric stasis. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition is indicated only to those patients who are unable to be fed orally or enterally. Thus nutritional deficiency is a relatively widesoread and constant finding suggesting that we must optimise the nutritional status both before and after surgery. © 2012 Indian Association of Surgical Oncology. Source

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