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Al-Khateeb A.J.,Saint Michaels Medical Center | Al Khateeb J.M.,University of Jordan
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine

The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchia asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staffs, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area. © 2015 Al-khateeb and Al khateeb. Source

Shah A.M.,Seton Hall University | Shah N.,Saint Michaels Medical Center | Depasquale J.R.,Seton Hall University
Journal of the Pancreas

Context Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feedings are generally considered safe with few serious complications. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication associated with replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Case report We report two cases of acute pancreatitis induced by migrated replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Conclusions Migration of a balloon into the duodenum can result in external manipulation of the ampulla of Vater thereby disturbing the flow of pancreatic secretions leading to acute pancreatitis. Recognition of this complication is important and should be included as potential etiology of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feedings. Periodic examination and documentation of the distance of the balloon from the skin should be performed to document the position of the tubes or any inadvertent migration of the tubes. The use of Foley catheters as permanent replacement tubes should be considered medically inappropriate. Source

Smith L.G.,Saint Michaels Medical Center | Smith L.G.,Saint Michaels Medical Center in Newark | Smith L.G.,The New School
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America

Mycoplasma pneumoniae continues to be the most frequent cause of atypical pneumonia. Fortunately, the antibiotics listed in this article are generally very effective. Major skills are needed to detect M pneumoniae extrapulmonary diseases, which require a special heightened awareness and sensitivity. It is not known whether early therapy prevents dreaded complications. © 2010. Source

Sulkowski M.,Johns Hopkins University | Pol S.,University of Paris Descartes | Mallolas J.,University of Barcelona | Fainboim H.,Muniz Hospital | And 10 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases

Background: Rates of sustained virological response (SVR) to peginterferon-ribavirin are low in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and HIV. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of triple therapy with boceprevir plus pegylated interferon alfa-2b (peginterferon) and ribavirin, which increases rates of SVR in patients with HCV alone. Methods: In our double-blind, randomised controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled adults (18-65 years) with untreated HCV genotype 1 infection and controlled HIV (HIV RNA <50 copies per mL) at 30 academic and non-academic study sites. We randomly allocated patients (1:2) according to a computer generated sequence, stratified by Metavir score and baseline HCV RNA level, to receive peginterferon 1·5 μg/kg per week with weight-based ribavirin (600-1400 mg per day) for 4 weeks, followed by peginterferon-ribavirin plus either placebo (control group) or 800 mg boceprevir three times per day (boceprevir group) for 44 weeks. Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, zidovudine, and didanosine were not permitted. The primary efficacy endpoint was SVR (defined as undetectable plasma HCV RNA) at follow-up week 24 after end of treatment. We assessed efficacy and safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00959699. Findings: From Jan 15, 2010, to Dec 29, 2010, we enrolled 99 patients, 98 of whom received at least one treatment dose. 40 (63%) of 64 patients in the boceprevir group had an SVR at follow-up week 24, compared with ten (29%) of 34 control patients (difference 33·1%, 95% CI 13·7-52·5; p=0·0008). Adverse events were more common in patients who received boceprevir than in control patients: 26 (41%) versus nine (26%) had anaemia, 23 (36%) versus seven (21%) pyrexia, 22 (34%) versus six (18%) decreased appetite, 18 (28%) versus five (15%) dysgeusia, 18 (28%) versus five (15%) vomiting, and 12 (19%) versus two (6%) neutropenia. Three patients who received boceprevir plus peginterferon-ribavirin and four controls had HIV virological breakthrough. Interpretation: Boceprevir in combination with peginterferon-ribavirin could be an important therapeutic option for patients with HCV and HIV. Funding: Merck. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fatkenheuer G.,University of Cologne | Hoffmann C.,University of Kiel | Slim J.,Saint Michaels Medical Center | Rouzier R.,Center Cap | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

OBJECTIVE: CCR5 antagonists block HIV cell entry through competitive binding to the CCR5 receptor present on the surface of CD4 cells. The CCR5 receptor is also present on CD8 cells involved in clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goal of the present study was to examine the short-term safety of a CCR5 antagonist, vicriviroc, in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 28 HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects with compensated liver disease and plasma HIV RNA below 400 copies/mL. All subjects were receiving a ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitor regimen, to which vicriviroc (5, 10, or 15 mg/day) or placebo was added for 28 days. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed 21 days beyond the treatment period. RESULTS: Treatment with vicriviroc resulted in no clinically meaningful changes in HCV or HIV viral load or any immune parameters. Adverse events were equally distributed among placebo and vicriviroc groups. Transaminase elevations of grade 1 or more were reported as AEs in 1 subject receiving 10-mg vicriviroc and 1 placebo subject. Vicriviroc plasma concentrations were similar to those observed in healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term treatment with vicriviroc as part of a ritonavir-containing protease inhibitor-based regimen was safe and well tolerated in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects. HIV/HCV coinfection also did not affect vicriviroc pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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