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Lingras P.,Saint Marys University | Peters G.,Munich University of Applied Sciences
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery | Year: 2011

Traditional clustering partitions a group of objects into a number of nonoverlapping sets based on a similarity measure. In real world, the boundaries of these sets or clusters may not be clearly defined. Some of the objects may be almost equidistant from the center of multiple clusters. Traditional set theory mandates that these objects be assigned to a single cluster. Rough set theory can be used to represent the overlapping clusters. Rough sets provide more flexible representation than conventional sets, at the same time they are less descriptive than the fuzzy sets. This paper describes the basic concept of rough clustering based on k-means, genetic algorithms, Kohonen self-organizing maps, and support vector clustering. The discussion also includes a review of rough cluster validity measures, and applications of rough clustering to such diverse areas as forestry, medicine, medical imaging, web mining, super markets, and traffic engineering. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Epstein M.S.,Saint Marys University
Talanta | Year: 2010

This paper examines specific cases in the literature where analysts using spectroscopic instrumentation report elemental concentrations that agree with information values reported in reference material certificates that are subsequently found to be incorrect. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gelbaya T.A.,University of Manchester | Tsoumpou I.,Saint Marys University | Nardo L.G.,University of Manchester
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine whether a policy of elective single-embryo transfer (e-SET) lowers the multiple birth rate without compromising the live birth rate. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting: Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine and IVF unit. Patient(s): None. Intervention(s): Searches of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Meta-register for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), EMBASE, MEDLINE, and SCISEARCH with no limitation on language and publication year, 1974 to 2008. Selection criteria: randomized, controlled trials comparing e-SET with double-embryo transfer (DET) for live birth and multiple birth rates after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Nonrandomized trials and studies that included only patients who had blastocyst transfer were excluded. Main Outcome Measure(s): The likelihood of live birth per patient and multiple birth per total number of live births. Other outcomes included implantation rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy rates, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate per patient, and preterm delivery rate per live birth. Result(s): Six trials (n = 1354 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with DET, the e-SET policy was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the probability of live birth (RR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.53-0.72) and multiple birth (RR 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.18). Conclusion(s): Elective-SET of embryos at the cleavage stage reduces the likelihood of live birth by 38% and multiple birth by 94%. Evidence from randomized, controlled trials suggests that increasing the number of e-SET attempts (fresh and/or frozen) results in a cumulative live birth rate similar to that of DET. Offering subfertile women three cycles of IVF will have a major impact on the uptake of an e-SET policy. © 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Lee P.,Franciscan University of Steubenville | Grisez G.,Saint Marys University
Bioethics | Year: 2012

D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon's argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals - sentient organisms of a specific type - the loss of the radical capacity for sentience (the capacity to sense or to develop the capacity to sense) involves a substantial change, the passing away of the human organism. In human beings total brain death involves the complete loss of the radical capacity for sentience, and so in human beings total brain death is death. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suteanu C.,Saint Marys University
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

This paper introduces a methodology for the characterization of time-scale-dependent variability in wind patterns. Successive windows of wind speed time series are first analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis. Isopersistence diagrams are then constructed to reflect the scale-by-scale variability of wind speed over time. Next, wind velocity vectors are projected on a plane that is rotated step by step, and a time-scale-sensitive analysis of the resulting projections is performed for each orientation of the plane, leading to an image of orientation-time-scale-persistence patterns. This methodology is designed to enhance the effectiveness of studies on site-dependent wind variability. © 2015 The Authors.

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