Saint Marys Hospital

Medicine Lodge, United States

Saint Marys Hospital

Medicine Lodge, United States

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Wijdicks E.F.,Saint Marys Hospital
Handbook of clinical neurology | Year: 2017

Coma has many causes but there are a few urgent ones in clinical practice. Management must start with establishing the cause and an attempt to reverse or attenuate some of the damage. This may include early neurosurgical intervention, efforts to reduce brain tissue shift and raised intracranial pressure, correction of markedly abnormal laboratory abnormalities, and administration of available antidotes. Supporting the patient's vital signs, susceptible to major fluctuations in a changing situation, remains the most crucial aspect of management. Management of the comatose patient is in an intensive care unit and neurointensivists are very often involved. This chapter summarizes the principles of caring for the comatose patient and everything a neurologist would need to know. The basic principles of neurologic assessment of the comatose patient have not changed, but better organization can be achieved by grouping comatose patients according to specific circumstances and findings on neuroimaging. Ongoing supportive care involves especially aggressive prevention of medical complications associated with mechanical ventilation and prolonged immobility. Waiting for recovery-and many do- is often all that is left. Neurorehabilitation of the comatose patient is underdeveloped and may not be effective. There are, as of yet, few proven options for neurostimulation in comatose patients. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wijdicks E.F.,Saint Marys Hospital
Handbook of clinical neurology | Year: 2017

Critical illness increases the probability of a neurologic complication. There are many reasons to consult a neurologist in a critically ill patient and most often it is altered alertness with no intuitive plausible explanation. Other common clinical neurologic problems facing the intensive care specialist and consulting neurologist in everyday decisions are coma following prolonged cardiovascular surgery, newly perceived motor asymmetry, seizures or other abnormal movements, and generalized muscle weakness. Assessment of long-term neurologic prognosis is another frequent reason for consultation and often to seek additional information about the patient's critical condition by the attending intensivist. Generally speaking, consultations in medical or surgical ICU's may have a varying catalog of complexity and may involve close management of major acute brain injury. This chapter introduces the main principles and scope of this field. Being able to do these consults effectively-often urgent and at any hour of the day-requires a good knowledge of general intensive care and surgical procedures. An argument can be made to involve neurointensivists or neurohospitalists in these complicated consults. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wijdicks E.F.,Saint Marys Hospital
Handbook of clinical neurology | Year: 2017

Imminent neuromuscular respiratory failure is recognized by shortness of breath, restlessness, and tachycardia and is often followed by tachypnea, constantly interrupting speech, asynchronous breathing and sometimes paradoxical breathing and use of scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Once a patient presents with such a constellation of signs, there are some difficult decisions to be made and include assessment of the severity of respiratory failure and in particular when to intubate. Failure of the patient to manage secretions as a result of oropharyngeal weakness rather than neuromuscular respiratory weakness may be another reason for acute intubation. Any patient with rapidly worsening weakness on presentation will need admission and observation in an intensive care unit. This chapter summarizes the pathophysiology of acute neuromuscular respiratory failure, its clinical recognition and respiratory management and outcome expectations. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wijdicks E.F.,Saint Marys Hospital
Handbook of clinical neurology | Year: 2017

Critical care medicine came into sharp focus in the second part of the 20th century. The care of acutely ill neurologic patients in the USA may have originated in postoperative neurosurgical units, but for many years patients with neurocritical illness were admitted to intensive care units next to patients with general medical or surgical conditions. Neurologists may have had their first exposure to the complexity of neurocritical care during the poliomyelitis epidemics, but few were interested. Much later, the development of neurocritical care as a legitimate subspecialty was possible as a result of a new cadre of neurologists, with support by departments of neurosurgery and anesthesia, who appreciated their added knowledge and expertise in care of acute neurologic illness. Fellowship programs have matured in the US and training programs in certain European countries. Certification in the USA is possible through the American Academy of Neurology United Council of Neurologic Specialties. Most neurointensivists had a formal neurology training. This chapter is a brief analysis of the development of the specialty critical care neurology and how it gained strength, what it is to be a neurointensivist, what the future of care of these patients may hold, and what it takes for neurointensivists to stay exemplary. This chapter revisits some of the earlier known and previously unknown landmarks in the history of neurocritical care. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Messaris E.,Brown University | Nicastri G.,Brown University | Dudrick S.J.,Saint Marys Hospital
Archives of Surgery | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the outcomes of patients undergoing total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair without fixation of the mesh. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Community teaching hospital. Patients: A total of 274 consecutive patients were included in the study group. Interventions: All operations were performed by the same surgeon with the patients under general anesthesia in an outpatient setting. A preformed polyester mesh (Parietex; Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) was used in all cases without any fixation. Main Outcome Measures: All patients were prospectively followed up at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery. Operative morbidity, chronic pain, and hernia recurrence were recorded. Results: Two hundred seventy-four consecutive patients underwent 311 total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repairs. No conversions were made to open hernia repairs. Norecurrences were found at the 12-month follow-up visit. There were 19 inguinal seromas (6.1%) identified at 2 weeks, but only 7 (1.9%) remained at 1 month, and none at 1 year.Nowound infections, scrotal hematomas, or other perioperative complications were reported. Two hundred thirty-six patients used fewer than the 30 prescribed tablets for pain control, while 23 patients requested a refill, 12 of whom had seromas (P<.01). At 12 months, no patient was taking pain relief medication; however, 8 patients reported occasional discomfort in the groin, and 1 patient reported occasional umbilical discomfort. Conclusion: This single general surgeon experience supports total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair without mesh fixation as a safe, effective procedure with low morbidity and no evidence of recurrence at the 1-year follow-up visit. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Dudrick S.J.,Yale University | Dudrick S.J.,Saint Marys Hospital
Surgical Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

Surgery in geriatric patients is accompanied by increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in functional abnormalities and poor outcomes, and increases in severe malnutrition, compared with surgery of similar magnitude in nongeriatric patients. Hospitalized elderly patients are at significant risk of presenting with, or developing, protein-energy and other nutrient deficiencies. However, nutritional assessment of older geriatric patients, 65 to 100 years of age, is a challenging task because of lack of adequate age-specific reference data in this diverse and heterogeneous population. Dietary counseling and conscientious, aggressive nutritional support are required for optimal metabolic and surgical care of this age group. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Brenes-Salazar J.A.,Saint Marys Hospital | Forman D.E.,Saint Marys Hospital
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2014

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and the most common cause of death in older adults. Paradoxically, elderly patients tend to be systematically excluded from randomized-controlled cardiovascular trials, which complicates decision-making in this population. Management of CHD in the elderly is frequently more difficult in virtue of chronic comorbid conditions and aging-intrinsic dynamics. Despite these challenges, the number of elderly and very elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is increasing. Elderly patients in many registries and large clinical series exhibit even a greater benefit from interventional procedures than younger patients, but they have a higher rate of overall complications. We present an overview of the current available evidence of PCI in older adults with stable and unstable CHD, including comparisons between drug-eluting and bare-metal stents, transfemoral and transradial access, and methods of revascularization. Adjuvant antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies are also discussed. © 2014.


Abunnaja S.,Saint Marys Hospital | Cuviello A.,Saint Marys Hospital | Sanchez J.A.,Saint Marys Hospital
Nutrients | Year: 2013

Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient's outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7-10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations. © 2013 by the authors licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Jammalamadaka D.,Saint Marys Hospital | Raissi S.,Saint Marys Hospital
American Journal of the Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

In clinical practice, poisoning with ethylene glycol, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol is common. These alcohol-related intoxications can present with high anion gap metabolic acidosis and increased osmolality. Toxicity and clinical symptoms are due to the accumulation of their metabolites, causing increased anion gap, rather than the parent compounds that are associated with an increase of serum osmolality. Clinical manifestations result from abnormalities of neurologic, cardiopulmonary, and renal function. Laboratory abnormalities when present are helpful for diagnosis but may be absent depending on the time of ingestion and time of presentation. Fomepizole and ethanol are potent inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and reduce generation of toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis is an effective way of detoxification because it can remove unmetabolized alcohol in addition to the organic anions. High index of suspicion and early diagnosis can prevent the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these intoxications. © Copyright 2010 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation.


McCabe P.J.,Saint Marys Hospital
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare | Year: 2011

Clinicians in a variety of settings are called upon to care for patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF), a common chronic condition that affects up to 3 million people in the USA. Evidence-based guidelines provide clinicians with direction for treatment of AF, but recommended content for educating patients and counseling about self-management of AF is not included in published guidelines. When patients believe they have a good understanding of AF they report fewer symptoms, perceive greater control over AF, and attribute less emotional distress to AF. Thus, providing patients with information about AF and how to manage it is important for promoting positive outcomes. The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based recommendations for content to include in self-management education and counseling for patients with AF. Approaches for educating and counseling patients related to AF pathophysiology, the nature of AF (its cause, consequences, and trajectory), treatments, action plans, and symptom management, and managing the psychosocial challenges of living with AF, are discussed. © 2011 McCabe.

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