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Notre Dame, IN, United States

Bentley I.,University of Notre Dame | Bentley I.,Saint Marys College | Frauendorf S.,University of Notre Dame
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The linear term proportional to |N-Z| in the nuclear symmetry energy (Wigner energy) is obtained in a model that uses isovector pairing on single-particle levels from a deformed potential combined with a T-2 interaction. The pairing correlations are calculated by numerical diagonalization of the pairing Hamiltonian acting on the six or seven levels nearest the N=Z Fermi surface. The experimental binding energies of nuclei with N≈Z are well reproduced. The Wigner energy emerges as a consequence of restoring isospin symmetry. We have found the Wigner energy to be insensitive to the presence of moderate isoscalar pair correlations. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Olson K.R.,Indiana University | Donald J.A.,Deakin University | Dombkowski R.A.,Saint Marys College | Perry S.F.,University of Ottawa
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2012

The concept that non-respiratory gases, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) functioned as signaling moieties is a relatively recent development, due in part to their ephemeral existence in biological tissues. However, from an evolutionary perspective these gases dominated the prebiotic and anoxic Earth and were major contributors to the origin of life and the advent of eukaryotic animals. As Earth's oxygen levels rose, NO, CO and H2S disappeared from the environment and cells began to utilize their now well-developed metabolic pathways to compartmentalize and regulate these three gases for signaling purposes. Ironically, many of the signaling pathways have become now intimately involved in regulating oxygen delivery and their evolution has continued well into the vertebrates. This review examines the role NO, CO and H2S played in early life and their regulatory roles in oxygen delivery during the course of vertebrate evolution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kleinfelter-Domelle N.,Saint Marys College | Cushman J.H.,Purdue University
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase flow which allows for connected and disconnected phases in a swelling medium is developed using hybrid mixture theory with three spatial scales. The mesoscale of the medium consists of swelling particles and two bulk phases, such as liquid water and vapor. The particles are a combination of a vicinal liquid and a solid, which may swell or shrink as a result of interaction with the other bulk phases; an example is a mixture of montmorillonite platelets and water. The theory defines connected and disconnected bulk phases of liquid and vapor at the mesoscale to create a dual-porosity type model at the macroscale. The disconnected vapor phase consists of either buoyant bubbles or confined vapor packets. The incorporation of disconnected and connected phases is useful for modeling unsaturated swelling systems. The macroscale solid phase volume fraction is refined from previous hybrid mixture approaches for two-phase multiscale problems and is fully utilized in the field equations and the constitutive theory. Macroscale equations for each of the six phases are presented with bulk regions separated into connected and disconnected domains. A constitutive theory is derived by exploiting the entropy inequality for the mixture. Generalized Darcy's laws and the final set of field equations for the system are presented and compared with previous hybrid mixture theoretic results. Classical parallel flow models only consider disconnected bulk regions and therefore are only appropriate for drainage; the current system can be useful for both imbibition and drainage, including extremely dry systems. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union. Source


Jensen R.J.,Saint Marys College
Cladistics | Year: 2011

The nature of species names has been a source of controversy, and has played a role in developing ideas about the status of species, such as the species-as-individuals hypothesis. Some argue that species names are Millian proper names: names that have no meaning. Others have countered that species names are Millian general names that have stipulative definitions. Here I argue that species names belong to neither category. In particular, unlike Millian proper names, species names have unique referents and are connotative. Further, species names are names of intension that, unlike Millian general names, refer to specific collective entities. Because species names have unique properties not associated with Millian general or proper names, but recognizing the similarity to proper names in most respects, I propose that they be categorized as extra-proper names. © The Willi Hennig Society 2011. Source


Welle M.K.,Saint Marys College
Orthopaedic Nursing | Year: 2012

Patients who have major orthopaedic surgery are at high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Assessment of risk and treatment to prevent VTE are considered standard of care due to its significant morbidity, potential mortality, and clinical burden and cost. Guidelines are available aiding orthopaedic surgeons to choose the best methods of VTE prophylaxis. Optimal VTE prevention has not been achieved. Recent advances in the understanding of the coagulation cascade have evolved because of a novel understanding of the molecular influences on the coagulation pathway. Subsequently, new anticoagulants have been developed that target specific factors within the coagulation cascade that are contrasted to the currently used agents that have a broad effect on the coagulation pathway. Multiple clinical trials have tested the new anticoagulants within the orthopaedic total knee and total hip arthroplasty arena. In addition, research to find new ways to prevent VTE was driven by limitations of the currently available agents. The new oral anticoagulants extensively trialed in orthopaedics are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Clinical trials indicate that the new oral agents have the potential to impact VTE prophylaxis in regard to efficacy, predicta bility and consistency, clinical monitoring, adherence as to use and duration, and convenience. Concerns persist regarding issues of bleeding complications, liver enzyme elevation, patients with renal disease, and drug-to-drug interactions. The new oral agents do not have an antidote to reverse bleeding effect and have no reliable assay to measure effect. Nurses need to be aware of these new VTE prophylactic choices and their implications in order to provide the best outcomes for their patients. © 2012 by National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses. Source

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