Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute

Kansas City, MO, United States

Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute

Kansas City, MO, United States
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Smolderen K.G.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Smolderen K.G.,University of Tilburg | Spertus J.A.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Spertus J.A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | And 6 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: Somatic depressive symptoms and certain biomarkers are each associated with worse acute myocardial infarction (AMI) prognosis, but the relationship between depressive symptom domains and inflammatory, neurohormonal, and coagulation markers is unknown. Methods: We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and 1-month biomarker levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], white blood cell [WBC], platelet counts) in 1265 AMI patients. Depressive symptoms (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire) were assessed during index hospitalization and categorized as somatic or cognitive. Using median regression models, the upper quartile of somatic and cognitive depression scores and each biomarker were compared with the lower three quartiles, adjusting for site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Results: Although hs-CRP values were higher in patients with somatic symptoms, this association was attenuated after adjustment (B per SD increase =.02, 95% confidence interval:.00;.05, p =.07). WBC count was independently associated with somatic depressive symptoms (B per SD increase =.28, 95% confidence interval:.12;.44, p <.001). Cognitive depressive symptoms were not associated with hs-CRP or WBC count. Neither dimension was associated with NT-proBNP or platelet levels. For each biomarker, the depression dimensions explained <1% of their variation. Conclusions: Neither somatic nor cognitive depressive symptoms were meaningfully associated with hs-CRP, NT-proBNP, WBC, or platelet counts 1 month after AMI, suggesting that the association between depression and long-term outcomes may be unrelated to these biomarkers. Future research should explore other biomarkers to better illuminate pathways by which depression adversely impacts AMI prognosis. © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Don C.W.,University of Washington | House J.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | White C.,Ochsner Heart and Vascular Clinic | Kiernan T.,University College Cork | And 4 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2011

Objectives: We describe characteristics associated with use of endarterectomy (CEA) versus stenting (CAS) in patients before urgent cardiac surgery. Background: The optimal modality of carotid revascularization preceding cardiac surgery is unknown. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of the CARE (Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy) registry from January 2005 to April 2010 was performed on patients undergoing CEA or CAS preceding urgent cardiac surgery within 30 days. Baseline characteristics were compared, and multivariate adjustment was performed. Results: Of 451 patients who met study criteria, 255 underwent CAS and 196 underwent CEA. Both procedures increased over time to a similar degree (p = 0.18). Patients undergoing CAS had more frequent history of peripheral artery disease (38.2% vs. 26.5%, p < 0.01), neck surgery (5.5% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.01), neck radiation (4.3% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.04), left-main coronary disease (34.8% vs. 23.5%, p < 0.01), neurological events (45.8% vs. 31.3%, p < 0.01), carotid intervention (20.8% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.01), and higher baseline creatinine (1.3 vs. 1.1 mg/dl, p = 0.02). The target carotid arteries of CAS patients were more likely to be symptomatic in the 6 months before revascularization and have restenosis from prior CEA. Patients undergoing CAS had a lower American Society of Anesthesiology grade. Midwest hospitals were less likely to perform CAS than CEA, whereas in the other regions CAS was more common (p < 0.01). Non-Caucasian race, a history of heart failure, previous carotid procedures, prior stroke, left main coronary artery stenosis, lower American Society of Anesthesiology grade, and teaching hospital were independent predictors of patients who would receive CAS. Conclusions: Carotid artery stenting and CEA have increased among patients undergoing urgent cardiac surgery. Patients who underwent CAS had more vascular disease but lower acute pre-surgical risk. Significant regional variation in procedure selection exists. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Elderon L.,University of California at San Francisco | Smolderen K.G.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Smolderen K.G.,University of Tilburg | Na B.,San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2011

We administered the 2-step AHA-recommended screening algorithm to 1024 patients with stable coronary heart disease and calculated sensitivity and specificity against a gold standard interview for major depressive disorder. Subsequent cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure, or death) were determined during a mean of 6.27±2.11 years of follow-up. The AHA-recommended screening method had high specificity (0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.93) but low sensitivity (0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.59) for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Participants who screened positive on the AHA depression protocol had a 55% greater risk of events than those who screened negative (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.97; P=0.0005). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and high-density lipoprotein levels, screening positive remained associated with a 41% greater rate of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P=0.008). © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Chan P.S.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Chan P.S.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Patel M.R.,Duke Clinical Research Institute | Klein L.W.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 11 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2011

Context: Despite the widespread use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the appropriateness of these procedures in contemporary practice is unknown. Objective: To assess the appropriateness of PCI in the United States. Design, Setting, and Patients: Multicenter, prospective study of patients within the National Cardiovascular Data Registry undergoing PCI between July 1, 2009, and September 30, 2010, at 1091 US hospitals. The appropriateness of PCI was adjudicated using the appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization. Results were stratified by whether the procedure was performed for an acute (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, or unstable angina with high-risk features) or nonacute indication. Main Outcome Measures: Proportion of acute and nonacute PCIs classified as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate; extent of hospital-level variation in inappropriate procedures. Results: Of 500 154 PCIs, 355 417 (71.1%) were for acute indications (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 103 245 [20.6%]; non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 105 708 [21.1%]; high-risk unstable angina, 146 464 [29.3%]), and 144 737 (28.9%) for nonacute indications. For acute indications, 350 469 PCIs (98.6%) were classified as appropriate, 1055 (0.3%) as uncertain, and 3893 (1.1%) as inappropriate. For nonacute indications, 72 911 PCIs (50.4%) were classified as appropriate, 54 988 (38.0%) as uncertain, and 16 838 (11.6%) as inappropriate. The majority of inappropriate PCIs for nonacute indications were performed in patients with no angina (53.8%), low-risk ischemia on noninvasive stress testing (71.6%), or suboptimal (≤1 medication) antianginal therapy (95.8%). Furthermore, although variation in the proportion of inappropriate PCI across hospitals was minimal for acute procedures, there was substantial hospital variation for nonacute procedures (median hospital rate for inappropriate PCI, 10.8%; interquartile range, 6.0%-16.7%). Conclusions: In this large contemporary US cohort, nearly all acute PCIs were classified as appropriate. For nonacute indications, however, 12% were classified as inappropriate, with substantial variation across hospitals. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Voeks J.H.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Howard G.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Roubin G.S.,New Hill | Malas M.B.,Johns Hopkins Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose: High stroke event rates among carotid artery stenting (CAS)-treated patients in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST) lead-in registry generated an a priori hypothesis that age may modify the relative efficacy of CAS versus carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In the primary CREST report, we previously noted significant effect modification by age. Here we extend this investigation by examining the relative efficacy of the components of the primary end point, the treatment-specific impact of age, and contributors to the increasing risk in CAS-treated patients at older ages. Methods: Among 2502 CREST patients with high-grade carotid stenosis, proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of age on the CAS-to-CEA relative efficacy, and the impact of age on risk within CAS-treated and CEA-treated patients. Results: Age acted as a treatment effect modifier for the primary end point (P interaction=0.02), with the efficacy of CAS and CEA approximately equal at age 70 years. For CAS, risk for the primary end point increased with age (P<0.0001) by 1.77-times (95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.28) per 10-year increment; however, there was no evidence of increased risk for CEA-treated patients (P=0.27). Stroke events were the primary contributor to the overall effect modification (P interaction=0.033), with equal risk at ≈64 years. The treatment-by-age interaction for CAS and CEA was not altered by symptomatic status (P=0.96) or by sex (P=0.45). Conclusions:Outcomes after CAS versus CEA were related to patient age, attributable to increasing risk for stroke after CAS at older ages. Patient age should be an important consideration when choosing between the 2 procedures for treating carotid stenosis. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT00004732. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Mahoney E.M.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Mahoney E.M.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Wang K.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Keo H.H.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2010

Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is common and imposes a high risk of major systemic and limb ischemic events. The REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry is an international prospective registry of patients at risk of atherothrombosis caused by established arterial disease or the presence of ≥3 atherothrombotic risk factors. Methods and Results: We compared the 2-year rates of vascular-related hospitalizations and associated costs in US patients with established PAD across patient subgroups. Symptomatic PAD at enrollment was identified on the basis of current intermittent claudication with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.90 or a history of lower-limb revascularization or amputation. Asymptomatic PAD was diagnosed on the basis of an enrollment ABI <0.90 in the absence of symptoms. Overall, 25 763 of the total 68 236-patient REACH cohort were enrolled from US sites; 2396 (9.3%) had symptomatic and 213 (0.8%) had asymptomatic PAD at baseline. One-and cumulative 2-year follow-up data were available for 2137 (82%) and 1677 (64%) of US REACH patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic PAD, respectively. At 2 years, mean cumulative hospitalization costs, per patient, were $7445, $7000, $10430, and $11 693 for patients with asymptomatic PAD, a history of claudication, lower-limb amputation, and revascularization, respectively (P=0.007). A history of peripheral intervention (lower-limb revascularization or amputation) was associated with higher rates of subsequent procedures at both 1 and 2 years. Conclusions: The economic burden of PAD is high. Recurring hospitalizations and repeat revascularization procedures suggest that neither patients, physicians, nor healthcare systems should assume that a first admission for a lower-extremity PAD procedure serves as a permanent resolution of this costly and debilitating condition. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Stolker J.M.,Saint Louis University | Spertus J.A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Cohen D.J.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Cohen D.J.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014

Background-Many clinical trials use composite end points to reduce sample size, but the relative importance of each individual end point within the composite may differ between patients and researchers. Methods and Results-We asked 785 cardiovascular patients and 164 clinical trial authors to assign 25 "spending weights" across 5 common adverse events comprising composite end points in cardiovascular trials: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for angina. We then calculated end point ratios for each participant's ratings of each nonfatal end point relative to death. Whereas patients assigned an average weight of 5 to death, equal or greater weight was assigned to myocardial infarction (mean ratio, 1.12) and stroke (ratio, 1.08). In contrast, clinical trialists were much more concerned about death (average weight, 8) than myocardial infarction (ratio, 0.63) or stroke (ratio, 0.53). Both patients and trialists considered revascularization (ratio, 0.48 and 0.20, respectively) and hospitalization (ratio, 0.28 and 0.13, respectively) as substantially less severe than death. Differences between patient and trialist end point weights persisted after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusions-Patients and clinical trialists did not weigh individual components of a composite end point equally. Whereas trialists are most concerned about avoiding death, patients place equal or greater importance on reducing myocardial infarction or stroke. Both groups considered revascularization and hospitalization as substantially less severe. These findings suggest that equal weights in a composite clinical end point do not accurately reflect the preferences of either patients or trialists. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Salisbury A.C.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Kosiborod M.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute
Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine | Year: 2012

Anemia is well recognized as a marker of poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. Despite increasing awareness that anemia is associated with higher mortality, more frequent hospitalization, and worse health status, it remains unclear whether treating chronic anemia improves patients' outcomes. The importance of studying hospital-acquired anemia (HAA), and recognizing which patients are at high risk for developing HAA early in the course of their hospitalization, is underscored by the potential opportunities for HAA prevention and management. This article reviews the incidence of HAA, risk factors for developing HAA, and its relationship with clinical outcomes. © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC.

Fanari Z.,Christiana Care Health System | Kennedy K.K.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Lim M.J.,Saint Louis University | Laddu A.A.,Saint Louis University | Stolker J.M.,Saint Louis University
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Beta blockers are indicated for management of acute coronary syndromes, but they generally are withheld in patients with cocaine-associated chest pain because of concerns for adverse outcomes related to the unique physiological effects of cocaine. Because few clinical studies have evaluated this interaction, we identified patients with toxicology screen results positive for cocaine treated for chest pain at 2 academic hospitals. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patients with and without β-blocker therapy. We then constructed propensity scores to evaluate the independent relation between β-blocker use and the composite primary end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, or all-cause mortality after adjusting for clinical characteristics. Of 376 consecutive patients with cocaine-related chest pain, β blockers were used in 164 (44%). Compared with no β blockers, patients treated with β blockers were more likely to describe anginal chest pain, to have known cardiovascular risk factors, and to receive other antiatherosclerotic therapies. Despite these higher risk clinical characteristics, patients treated with β blockers experienced similar peak troponin levels, individual adverse events, and rates of the composite primary end point (15.9% vs 12.3%, p = 0.32). The primary end point also was similar after propensity score analysis (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 2.93, p = 0.42), including specific comparisons of beta-1 selective (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 4.24) and nonselective (odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 2.42) β blockers, when compared with patients not receiving β blockers. In conclusion, no differences in outcomes were observed between patients treated versus not treated with β-blocker therapy in the setting of cocaine-related chest pain. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Marso S.P.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Lindsey J.B.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | Stolker J.M.,Saint Louis University | House J.A.,Saint Lukes Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute | And 4 more authors.
Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research | Year: 2011

We assessed the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, using existing clinical data. Patient-level results from all completed phase 2 and 3 studies from the liraglutide clinical development programme were pooled to determine rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke. MACE were identified by querying the study database using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms combined with serious adverse events recorded by study investigators. Broad, narrow, and custom groups of MedDRA queries were used. Candidate events from each query were independently adjudicated post hoc. In 15 studies (6638 patients; 4257 liraglutide treated), there were 114 patients with MACE identified using the broad MedDRA query. Of these, 44 were classified as serious adverse events and 39 were adjudicated as MACE. The incidence ratio for adjudicated broad/serious MACE associated with liraglutide was 0.73 (95% CI 0.38-1.41) versus all comparator drugs (metformin, glimepiride, rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, placebo), within cardiovascular safety limits defined by the United States Food & Drug Administration for diabetes therapies under current investigation. © The Author(s) 2011.

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